2017

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Volume 54, Issue 1.

1. George Veletsianos, Royce Kimmons, Ashley Shaw, Laura Pasquini & Scott Woodward: Selective openness, branding, broadcasting, and promotion: Twitter use in Canada’s public universities

2. Renate Prins, Lucy Avraamidou & Martin Goedhart: Tell me a Story: the use of narrative as a learning tool for natural selection

3. Lee Yong Tay, Shanthi Suraj Nair & Cher Ping Lim: A regression analysis of elementary students’ ICT usage vis-à-vis access to technology in Singapore


4. Christopher Drew: Edutaining audio: an exploration of education podcast design possibilities

 

5. Mary Gutman & Lynne Genser: How pre-service teachers internalize the link between research literacy and pedagogy

 

Volume 54, Issue 2.

6. Young-mee Hwang, Kwang-sun Kim & Tami Im: Film scenes in interdisciplinary education: teaching the Internet of Things

7. Amber Rowland, Jana Craig-Hare, Marilyn Ault, James Ellis & Janis Bulgren: Social media: How the next generation can practice argumentation

8. Abdullah Almaden & Heng-Yu Ku: Analyzing the curricula of doctor of philosophy in educational technology-related programs in the United States

9. Silvia Elena Gallagher, Mairtin O’Dulain, Niamh O’Mahony, Claire Kehoe, Fintan McCarthy & Gerard Morgan: Instructor-provided summary infographics to support online learning

10. Rachel Sheffield, Rekha Koul, Susan Blackley & Nicoleta Maynard: Makerspace in STEM for girls: a physical space to develop twenty-first-century skills

Volume 54, Issue 3.

11. Diana Fenton: Recommendations for professional development necessary for iPad integration


12. Sebastián Mariano Giorgi: Origin and decline of the first university radio web in France


13. Mary Gutman: Facilitating pre-service teachers to develop Regulation of Cognition with Learning Management System


14. Lúcia Pombo, Vânia Carlos & Maria João Loureiro: Edulabs AGIRE project – evaluation of ICT integration in teaching strategies


15. Patrick McGuire, Shihfen Tu, Mary Ellin Logue, Craig A. Mason & Korinn Ostrow: Counterintuitive effects of online feedback in middle school math: results from a randomized controlled trial in ASSISTments


16. Sunnie Lee Watson, William R. Watson & Woori Kim: Primary assessment activity and learner perceptions of attitude change in four MOOCs

 

Volume 54, Issue 4.

 

17. Ben Williamson: Moulding student emotions through computational psychology: affective learning technologies and algorithmic governance

18. Roderic Crooks: Representationalism at work: dashboards and data analytics in urban education

19. Kelley Kreitz: Toward a Latinx digital humanities pedagogy: remixing, reassembling, and reimagining the archive

20. Samantha Low-Choy, Tasha Riley & Clair Alston-Knox: Using Bayesian statistical modelling as a bridge between quantitative and qualitative analyses: illustrated via analysis of an online teaching tool

21. Peggy Semingson, Ian O’Byrne, Raúl Alberto Mora & William Kis: Social scholarship and the networked scholar: researching, reading, and writing the web

22. Noah Asher Golden: Critical digital literacies across scales and beneath the screen



George Veletsianos, Royce Kimmons, Ashley Shaw, Laura Pasquini & Scott Woodward: Selective openness, branding, broadcasting, and promotion: Twitter use in Canada’s public universities

Higher education institutions have embraced social media platforms. Yet, little research has examined the characteristics of institutional social media accounts and the narratives their posts construct for faculty and student life. By investigating these topics, researchers can better understand the actual and potential roles of these tools in contemporary universities. This study focused on understanding how Canada’s public universities use Twitter, reporting descriptive, inferential, and qualitative analyses of large-scale Twitter data. Findings show extensive variability in participation patterns among institutions. Although rhetoric surrounding Twitter suggests an interactive platform, institutions mostly use it to broadcast information and construct overwhelmingly positive representations of institutional life. While the identified representations are partly authentic, they are also incomplete and misleading. Such representations suggest difficulty for students and faculty seeking to use social media to accurately anticipate campus life or to interact online in these spaces.

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Renate Prins, Lucy Avraamidou & Martin Goedhart: Tell me a Story: the use of narrative as a learning tool for natural selection

Grounded within literature pointing to the value of narrative in communicating scientific information, the purpose of this study was to examine the use of stories as a tool for teaching about natural selection in the context of school science. The study utilizes a mixed method, case study approach which focuses on the design, implementation, and evaluation of narrative-based curriculum materials. The data consisted of questionnaires, classroom observations, and interviews with the students and teachers. The analysis of the data showed that most of the students developed adequate scientific understandings about natural selection and they perceived the narrative as easier to comprehend than the textbook. The findings speak to the need for examining ways of blending narrative effectively into science lessons.

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Lee Yong Tay, Shanthi Suraj Nair & Cher Ping Lim: A regression analysis of elementary students’ ICT usage vis-à-vis access to technology in Singapore

This paper explores the relationship among ICT infrastructure (i.e., computing devices and Internet), one-to-one computing program and student ICT activities in school. It also looks into the differences of how ICT is being used in the teaching of English, mathematics and science at the elementary school level in relation to the availability of computing devices, Internet connection and one-to-one program. A total of 360 Grade 5 students from three schools (120 students from each school) in the western part of Singapore participated in a questionnaire adapted from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ICT Familiarity Component for Student Questionnaire regarding students’ ICT use. One of the participating schools has implemented a school-based one-to-one computing program for all its students for the past nine years, with the school providing the necessary computing devices for all its Grade 1 to 3 students and a student computer ownership program to encourage all its Grade 4 students to procure their own computing devices to be used till completion of elementary education at Grade 6. The regression analyses suggest that how ICT is being used plays a more significant role in predicting the frequency of ICT use for the various subject areas than ICT infrastructure and one-to-one computing program. Further analysis also reveals that one-to-one computing program and availability of computing devices have a significant interaction effect on the frequency of ICT usage for English but not for mathematics and science—the presence of computing devices seem to have an impact for the usage of ICT for English but not the other two subject areas. The findings concur with earlier studies that there are differences in frequency and how ICT is being used in the teaching of English, mathematics and science.

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Christopher Drew: Edutaining audio: an exploration of education podcast design possibilities

The versatility, intimacy and ease of production of podcasting make it a logical technology to apply to flexible education contexts. As a result, there has been increasing scholarly interest in the value of education podcasting in recent years. While education podcasting literature has tended to explore podcast implementation in institutional contexts, education podcasts outside of academia have also grown in popularity, to the extent that “education” is a common sub-group in podcast aggregation sites. This paper adapts Fernandez, Sallan and Simo’s framework of variables in education podcast design, to conduct a textual analysis of emergent design themes in non-institutional education podcasts. The findings reveal how highly successful podcasts from outside of educational institutions can both reinforce and challenge norms about education podcast design that exist within academic discourse, including in regard to podcast length, pedagogical approaches and the position of the podcast in the learning experience. It is the hope that the findings of this study might shift discourse from an interest in universalising ideas about “good practice” in education podcast design, towards more nuanced discussion of design practices that fit within specific contexts.
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Mary Gutman & Lynne Genser: How pre-service teachers internalize the link between research literacy and pedagogy

Enabling pre-service teachers to develop a critical view of their practice and to acquire the higher order inquiry skills necessary for pedagogic research has been and continues to be a challenge. The present study presents a unique intervention in the training of pre-service teachers in research literacy (RL) skills using a Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach. The intervention is implemented in two different Learning Communities (LC), one online and the other blended. Both immediate and long-term effects of PBL are investigated as are the effects of social and direct scaffolding within the LCs. The study focuses on transmitting the following RL skills: identifying and defining a problem, formulating a research question, and designing a research method. The findings indicate an immediate effect upon all RL skills in both LCs. The long-term effect appears only in the online LC and only for two RL skills: identifying and defining problems. Additionally, there is greater use of social scaffolding in formulating and designing a research study in the online LC than in the blended learning community. Those findings are then interpreted in terms of retention capacity and scaffolding in blended and online LCs.

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Young-mee Hwang, Kwang-sun Kim & Tami Im: Film scenes in interdisciplinary education: teaching the Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is gaining importance in education owing to its rapid development. This study addresses the importance of interdisciplinary education between technology and the humanities. The use of films as a teaching resource is suitable for interdisciplinary education because films represent creative forecasts and predictions on future human society, helping the public realize what could occur in the future. By utilizing films in instruction, students can be trained to understand the three key functions of IoT and acquire the ability to develop creative applications of IoT. An IoT teaching model using the films Minority Report (2002), Big Hero 6 (2014), Iron Man 3 (2013), Her (2013), and Transcendence (2014), all of which depict various applications of IoT that could be helpful in the teaching of the functions and concepts of IoT, is suggested; an interdisciplinary class is carried out for 15 weeks following the model. The effectiveness of the class is measured using quantitative analysis, qualitative analysis, and reflection journals. The findings show that students developed interdisciplinary capacity through education using films.

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Amber Rowland, Jana Craig-Hare, Marilyn Ault, James Ellis & Janis Bulgren: Social media: How the next generation can practice argumentation

In this article the authors share how social media, paired with gaming and in-class supports, can facilitate the practice of scientific argumentation and report data that show how students can learn and practice argumentation through these highly interactive and engaging mediums. Social media will continue to evolve and fluctuate in popularity, but no matter the service or software, there will continue to be online spaces for communication, collaboration, learning, and future career growth. Since the role of education is to prepare students to be college and career ready, the use of social media as a component of schooling should be explored. This work has parsed out specific strategies and methods to support higher order thinking through gaming and social media.

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Abdullah Almaden & Heng-Yu Ku: Analyzing the curricula of doctor of philosophy in educational technology-related programs in the United States

he purpose of this study was to analyze on-campus and online PhD programs in educational technology-related fields in the United States. In particular, it sought to evaluate the most common program titles; core, elective, and research courses based on program curricula. The research design was quantitative content analysis and data were collected from six different sources. The study found 44 institutions offered campus-based degree programs and four offered online degree programs in educational technology-related fields with 27 different program titles. In addition, 324 core courses, 157 elective courses, and 260 research courses were further analyzed. The results revealed that the most common program titles were Curriculum and Instruction, Learning Design and Technology, Instructional Technology, Learning Technologies, Instructional Design and Technology, and Educational Technology. The most common core courses were Instructional Design, Advanced Instructional Design, Curriculum Theory, Needs Assessment, Internship in Instructional Technology, Instructional Systems Design, and Theories of Learning and Instruction. The most common elective courses were Multicultural Education, Foundations of Distance Learning, Educational Foundations, and Message Design. The most common research courses were Quantitative Methods, Qualitative Methods, Qualitative Research, Educational Research Methods, Multivariate Analysis, Introduction to Qualitative Research in Education, and Mixed Methods. Furthermore, this study provided discussion and implications for current study as well as recommendations for future research.

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Silvia Elena Gallagher, Mairtin O’Dulain, Niamh O’Mahony, Claire Kehoe, Fintan McCarthy & Gerard Morgan: Instructor-provided summary infographics to support online learning

Infographics are a visualisation tool that can be used to improve retention, comprehension and appeal of complex concepts. The rise of infographic use in education has facilitated new forms of application and design of these tools. Instructor-provided summary infographics are a new form of infographic, whereby key learning objectives and content are summarised in graphical form at the end of a lesson. However, it is unknown whether these types of infographics can support learning in online environments. This exploratory research investigates student perceptions, retention, applications and activity generation of instructor-provided summary infographics in a massive online learning environment. Using both post-course learner survey data (n = 1,899) and text mining analysis (n = 72,490 words), results present how learners perceived instructor-provided summary infographics as useful and appealing for retaining, clarifying and understanding learning concepts. The research contributes a novel understanding of summary infographics in online learning environments, and supports their use as a design tool for educational delivery in the online space.

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Rachel Sheffield, Rekha Koul, Susan Blackley & Nicoleta Maynard: Makerspace in STEM for girls: a physical space to develop twenty-first-century skills

Makerspace has been lauded as a new way forward to create communities, empower students and bring together enthusiasts of all ages and skill levels “to tinker” and create. Makerspace education has been touted as having the potential to empower young people to become agents of change in their communities. This paper examines how a Makerspace approach can capture the imagination and creativity of female primary school students, and engage them in integrated STEM-based projects. The study scaffolded female tertiary undergraduate students to mentor small groups of girls to complete a project in a STEM Makerspace situated in classrooms. The data generated and analysed from this study were used to determine how Makerspace STEM-based projects were enacted, how they engaged and supported the girls’ learning, and considers the future of a Makerspace approach as a way to progress integrated STEM education.

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Diana Fenton: Recommendations for professional development necessary for iPad integration

With the recent adoptions of 1:1 technology initiatives, such as the iPads in schools, it is urgent to provide appropriate professional development opportunities for teachers to maximize student use of the technology. This study provides vital information on the professional development needs of teachers for initial integration of technology with the iPad device and what is needed beyond the first year to sustain use in classrooms. One hundred and ninety-one teachers from 10 school districts participated in the study. The results of this study indicate that successful professional development occurs when teachers are allowed time to collaborate with colleagues and learn from peers on how they integrated curriculum with the technology. Collaboration with peers and work time was more important to teachers than one-on-one coaching or large group professional development. Teachers also voiced a need for ongoing, differentiated professional development due to the wide range of teacher expertise and learning levels with technology.

Sebastián Mariano Giorgi: Origin and decline of the first university radio web in France

Résonances was the first university radio web in France. It was founded at the University of Limoges, in 2010. This article is about the origin and decline of this transmedia project. Two strategies are here unfolded: historical the first one, ranging from the conception of the idea, the vicissitudes experienced by the team for implementing the radio and keeping it alive; the second one, a short semiotical approach. Following the principle according to which is sometimes necessary to move to a higher level of analysis to understand the lower one, the thesis of this article is that the suppression of Résonances cannot be understood either historically or semiotically without adding a higher level of analysis.

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Mary Gutman: Facilitating pre-service teachers to develop Regulation of Cognition with Learning Management System

The object of the present study is to propose a technologically based method for developing Regulation of Cognition (RC) among pre-service teachers in a pedagogical problem context. The research intervention was carried out by two groups during a Teaching Training Workshop, based on the IMPROVE instructional method, which was implemented in the Learning Management System (LMS). The first group (N = 53) investigated the pedagogical problems with “dual perspectives” (teacher and learner), and the other group (N = 47) analyzed the same problems from a teacher perspective only. The triangulated research design provided three sets of data of RC (e.g., statements on Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, Educational Data Mining, and observations on actual teaching). The results were indicative of the advantage that was obtained by the dual perspective group (LMS+2P), which has manifested in most components of RC, as compared with the single-based intervention (LMS+1P).

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Lúcia Pombo, Vânia Carlos & Maria João Loureiro: Edulabs AGIRE project – evaluation of ICT integration in teaching strategies

The object of the present study is to propose a technologically based method for developing Regulation of Cognition (RC) among pre-service teachers in a pedagogical problem context. The research intervention was carried out by two groups during a Teaching Training Workshop, based on the IMPROVE instructional method, which was implemented in the Learning Management System (LMS). The first group (N = 53) investigated the pedagogical problems with “dual perspectives” (teacher and learner), and the other group (N = 47) analyzed the same problems from a teacher perspective only. The triangulated research design provided three sets of data of RC (e.g., statements on Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, Educational Data Mining, and observations on actual teaching). The results were indicative of the advantage that was obtained by the dual perspective group (LMS+2P), which has manifested in most components of RC, as compared with the single-based intervention (LMS+1P).

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Patrick McGuire, Shihfen Tu, Mary Ellin Logue, Craig A. Mason & Korinn Ostrow: Counterintuitive effects of online feedback in middle school math: results from a randomized controlled trial in ASSISTments

This study compared the effects of three different feedback formats provided to sixth grade mathematics students within a web-based online learning platform, ASSISTments. A sample of 196 students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) text-based feedback; (2) image-based feedback; and (3) correctness only feedback. Regardless of condition, students solved a set of problems pertaining to the division of fractions by fractions. This mathematics content was representative of challenging sixth grade mathematics Common Core State Standard (6.NS.A.1). Students randomly assigned to receive text-based feedback (Condition A) or image-based feedback (Condition B) outperformed those randomly assigned to the correctness only group (Condition C). However, these differences were not statistically significant (F(2,108) = 1.394, p = .25). Results of this study also demonstrated a completion-bias. Students randomly assigned to Condition B were less likely to complete the problem set than those assigned to Conditions A and C. To conclude, we discuss the counterintuitive findings observed in this study and implications related to developing and implementing feedback in online learning environments for middle school mathematics.

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Sunnie Lee Watson, William R. Watson & Woori Kim: Primary assessment activity and learner perceptions of attitude change in four MOOCs

This study seeks to examine perceptions of attitudinal change in relation to the primary assessment activity within four Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) that were designed for attitudinal learning. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we sought to understand if by focusing on assessing cognitive learning (quizzes) as opposed to behavioral learning (personal projects), the courses would result in greater reported attitude change in the respective areas. The second component of the study examined whether learners who identified cognitive learning (quizzes) as opposed to behavioral learning (personal projects) as the most impactful learning activity (or vice versa) reported stronger learning in the respective attitudinal component. Using an author-created survey that included learner reported attitudinal learning, perceptions of attitude change were collected. Results revealed that learners who utilized assessment activities focusing on behavioral learning did not report higher perceptions of behavioral learning. In contrast, learners utilizing assessment activities that focused on cognitive learning did report higher perceptions of cognitive learning. We conclude with a discussion of instructional design and facilitation of learning in MOOCs, as well as instruction for attitudinal learning within open-learning environments.

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Ben Williamson: Moulding student emotions through computational psychology: affective learning technologies and algorithmic governance

Recently psychology has begun to amalgamate with computer science approaches to big data analysis as a new field of “computational psychology” or “psycho-informatics,” as well as with new “psycho-policy” approaches associated with behaviour change science, in ways that propose new ways of measuring, administering and managing individuals and populations. In particular, “social-emotional learning” has become a new focus within education. Supporters of social-emotional learning foresee technical systems being employed to quantify and govern learners’ affective lives, and to modify their behaviours in the direction of “positive” feelings. In this article I identify the core aspirations of computational psychology in education, along with the technical systems it proposes to enact its vision, and argue that a new form of “psycho-informatic power” is emerging as a source of authority and control over education.

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Roderic Crooks: Representationalism at work: dashboards and data analytics in urban education

This paper explores data analytics applied to urban education, focusing in particular on issues of representationalism, the view that representations (here, digital data) stand in mimetic relation to some external reality from which they are ontologically distinct. Based on interviews conducted over the 2016–2017 school year with a team of data professionals employed by a Charter Management Organization (CMO) that operates one dozen schools in South and East Los Angeles, this paper shows that respondents endorse a range of views about how data can stand in for things, events, and people. Data professionals charged with the creation and management of student-level data expressed views consistent with a representationalist understanding of digital data; by contrast, those charged chiefly with aggregating and analyzing heterogeneous streams of data expressed greater skepticism toward representationalist commitments. Despite this heterogeneous set of views, all of the data professionals interviewed relied on the same medium to communicate their interpretations of data to other members of the organization, including school personnel: a bespoke platform that consists of 125 dashboards. Critically, graphical means of visualization expressed objectivity, certainty, and actuarial foresight, even in cases where data professionals expressed ambivalence about the representational power of a given source of data.

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Kelley Kreitz: Toward a Latinx digital humanities pedagogy: remixing, reassembling, and reimagining the archive

This essay considers the teaching of the Latinx nineteenth century as a starting point for elucidating the unique interplay between pedagogy, epistemology, and ontology in our digital age. I argue that fields such as the Latinx nineteenth century, which must confront absences in the archive, foreground groundbreaking new pedagogical possibilities that draw on, but are not limited to, the computational methods that the digitization of archival texts has enabled. As scholars of Latinx Studies – as well as those in related fields such as hemispheric studies, black Atlantic studies, and indigenous studies – work to question the assumptions and omissions of our print-dominated past, digitization projects have become sites for recuperating lost voices, for breaking out of the disciplinary formations that have made sense of cultural history to find new patterns, and for increasing participation in the production of knowledge itself. While much of this work to date has centered on opening up new research trajectories, an emerging wave dedicated to digital humanities pedagogy in Latinx studies and related fields is engaging students in remixing, reassembling, and reimagining the archival record. Such new pedagogical approaches call for corresponding educational research methods and tools that can assess the effectiveness of the new digital humanities pedagogy in encouraging reflexivity about what we know and how we know it – and, ultimately, in contributing to the democratization of the production of knowledge.

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Samantha Low-Choy, Tasha Riley & Clair Alston-Knox: Using Bayesian statistical modelling as a bridge between quantitative and qualitative analyses: illustrated via analysis of an online teaching tool

Bayesian methods provide a more general approach to statistical analysis that mathematically includes Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST) and classical statistical modelling as special cases. This expanded, Bayesian, approach provides several benefits, which we illustrate using a case study about decision-making by teachers. We focus on a relatively unexplored topic: the way in which a Bayesian approach provides a “bridge” between qual/quant methods. We highlight five bridges, illustrated using the case study: (1) visualization of the conceptual framework, (2) generalization via randomization and alternatives, (3) stories for interpretation, (4) computation that is flexible, and (5) continual learning, through priors. This work illustrates these bridges using a case study on a digital tool that wove together: a behavioural study to investigate decision-making, with an inbuilt perceptual component to probe rationale for specific decisions, and an interview component. A mixed method was therefore a natural choice for integrating learnings across these data sources, collected using a single online tool. Thus, the digital learning sphere provides a context for raising awareness of the potential that the Bayesian statistical paradigm offers researchers who wish to connect qual/quant methods. In conclusion, mixing-in Bayesian with qualitative not only innovates on methodology. It also reshapes the ontology, epistemiology and axiology: providing a common ground for qual/quant methods, as a basis for better communication; redefining what quantitative method is, what it can achieve, and how it is done – particularly within a mixed method framework.

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Peggy Semingson, Ian O’Byrne, Raúl Alberto Mora & William Kis: Social scholarship and the networked scholar: researching, reading, and writing the web

What does it mean to be a digital/social scholar today? What does it take to be a networked scholar? What complicating and mitigating factors are emerging today for digital and networked scholarship? Those are some of the questions that a group of digitally connected “obnoxious academics” (the Authors) have been wrestling with, first individually and now as a collective, for several years now. The four authors, all literacy teacher educators and former schoolteachers, engaged with social media, new/digital literacies and the new calls for digital scholarship, share their reflections situated in three distinct regions of the United States and Colombia (the Global South). The Authors discuss conceptual and practical considerations and cautionary tales for researchers, students, and practitioners willing to engage in their own digital turns. The goal of this conversation-turned-article is to involve others in a larger dialog about the kind of global and digitally connected networks we need to create in order to develop stronger forms of digital scholarship that truly address the questions and research challenges in contemporary times.

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Noah Asher Golden: Critical digital literacies across scales and beneath the screen

Digital technologies and education scholarship tend to focus on either individual creative design or analysis of the political economy. To better understand how ideologies travel across networks, critical digital literacies must focus on enactments beneath the screen, as the linguistic constructs known as software can enact interests across scales of activity to “disembed” local actions and meaning. Investigations of these mobilities and disembedding effects challenge popular notions of digital technologies as neutral, rendering overt the ways that algorithms can naturalize manifestations of power and social arrangements. Such a framework allows for descriptive analyses of the ways hegemonic discourses are enacted through electronically mediated semiotic activity to shape possibilities in local contexts. Examples of such disembedding effects from the United States educational and justice systems are explored, and it is argued that scalar analyses can contribute to future generative critical and descriptive digital literacies scholarship.

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