STEM – ATEM – ICEM Conference 2016
“Interactions with Media: Intersecting the world of Language on- and off-line.”
In 2016 ICEM joined forces with two other well known organisations in the field of education, namely, STEM and ATEM, to bring you the STEM-ATEM-ICEM Conference 2016. This unique event took place in Kookmin University in Seoul, from September 23rd to 25th in 2016.
I. September 24 Opening Ceremony
Keynote Address & Plenary Session
• Plenary Session 1
• Plenary Session 2
Session 1: A. Movies
Is a Biopic Fiction or Non-Fiction: A discussion concerning truth and entertainment in a feature film about Florence Nightingale
Kono, Hiromi (Kyoto Junior College of Foreign Languages, Japan)
Session 1: B. Language Acquisition
Feel ‘bad’ or Feel ‘badly，: Physical condition and emotional response
Yokoyama, Hitoshi (Kyoto Women’s Univ., Japan)
Learning the Use of the Definite Article Through Drama: A Cognitive + Communicative approach to English grammar
Kim, Hyung-Sun (Chosun Univ., Korea) & Kim, Baegseung (Chonnam National Univ., Korea)
• Declarative Questions (DQs) in Use: Speech Acts Performed by DQs
Watanabe, Shin (Reitaku Univ., Japan)
• ALPHA-EU—Alphabets of Europe
Laverty, Raymond (ICEM, Austria)
Session 1: C. Curriculum Design
• The Effects of Viewing a TED Talk on Incidental Vocabulary Learning
Iwasaki, Hirosada (Univ. of Tsukuba, Japan)
• Rapport Building via Flipped Classroom
Mizuno, Motoko (Mejiro Kenshin High School, Japan)
• How We Can Stop Worrying and Love Grammar-Focused Instruction
Hirano, Junya (Kumamoto Univ., Japan)
• Bridging Texts: Working with Adaptations
Pronko, Michael (Meiji Gakuin Univ., Japan)
Session 1: D. Intercultural Issues
• Cross-Linguistic Humor and ELT
Yamaguchi, Michiyo (Kyoto Prefectural Univ., Japan)
• Opinions on Movies for Learning English at Korean Universities and an Indian Acting School
Saed, Todd (Sonkla Nakarin Univ., Thailand) &
Etches, Sean (Ann and Jinnie Institute, Korea)
The Ubiquitous Presence of ‘Funny English Signs’ in Japan: Patterns and strategies to avoid them
Kobayashi, Toshihiko (Otaru Univ. of Commerce., Japan)
Raising Intercultural Awareness Through Movies
Berglund, Jeff (Kyoto Univ. of Foreign Studies, Japan)
Session 1: E. Media
Online Lifelong Learning: A language course on Portuguese as a foreign on Skype for adults Loureiro, Maria Jose (Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal)
• A structural Relationship of Media Literacy Factors in English Education
Kim, Jeong-Ryeol (Korea National Univ. of Education, Korea)
• Using Educational Movies to Teach English Fang, Linda (Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore), Stangl, Anita (Medien LB, Germany),
Lee, Jason Yun Joon (Duksung Univ., Korea), &
Li, Pek Lin (Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore)
Session 1: F. Methods & Approaches
• Development of Metaphorical Competence of Japanese EFL Learners through Subtitle Translation
Toyokura, Shoko (Kansai Univ., Japan)
• The Use of Media as a Practical Case Study to Explain the Concept of Plagiarism in the Academic Writing EFL Classroom
Luckel-Semoto, Aya (Kyoto Univ., Japan)
• A Study on a New Phonetic Alphabet Based on Hangeul
Keem, Serng Erk (Hannam Univ., Korea)
Session 1: G. Workshop
Move to Blended Learning with Google Classroom? 50 Things You Can Do with Google Classroom
Keeler, Alice (California State Univ., Fresno, USA)
• A Study of Online Minimester Learning Experiences AND Self-Regulated Learning Skills
Tu, Chih-Hsiung (Nothern Arizona Univ., USA) , Roberts, Gayle (Cenegenics Institute, USA) , Yen, Cherng-Jyh (Old Dominion Univ., USA) , Rodas, Claudia (Nothern Arizona Univ., USA) , Harati, Hoda (Nothern Arizona Univ., USA) ,
Sujo-Montes, Laura (Nothern Arizona Univ., USA)
Session 1: H. esports
• Garcia, Ruben A. (Sam Houston State Univ., USA)
• Munoz, Jorge (Sam Houston State Univ., USA)
• Munoz, Evelin (Sam Houston State Univ., USA)
• Grigsby, Alexa (Sam Houston State Univ., USA)
• Kang, Han Sung (STEM, Korea)
• Lee, Sun Jin (STEM, Korea)
• Han, Gi Jung (STEM, Korea)
• Bang, In Hyuk (STEM, Korea)
• Ko, Jong-Seok (STEM, Korca)
Session 2: I. Movies
• Fostering Media Literacy Using Movies for EFL University Students
Yoshimuta, Satomi (International Christian Univ., Japan)
• Princesses in Movies
Fujikura, Naoko (Kyoto Univ. of Foreign Studies, Japan)
• Modernity in the Disney Movie, Frozen
Murata, Kimiko (Seinan Jo Gakuin Univ., Japan)
• A Trial of Introducing Movies into English Classes: Comparing two methods for listening task
Okajima, Yuta (Senshu Univ., Japan)
Session 2: J. Discourse Analysis
• Critical Discourse Analysis of Disney Animation as a Material for Young English Learners Hong, Bobae (Kongju National Univ., Korea) &
Min, Sujung (Kongju National Univ., Korea)
• Corpus-Based Analysis of Discourse Particles Sure and Of Course
Yamamoto, Goro (Hiroshima Univ., Japan)
• A Look at the Definite Article of English through Movies
Fujie, Yoshiyuki (Kyoto Univ. of Foreign Studies, Japan)
• Affective Domains in Media-Rich Language Programs
Carter, Peter (Kyushu Sangyo Uni., Japan)
Session 2: K. Methods and Approaches
• 21st Century Education for University EFL Education: Japanese learners perception of the usability and likability of Edmodo
Uehara, Suwako (The Univ. of Electro-Communications, Japan)
• Exploring Global Society World Englishes Through Movies to Empower Cross-Cultural Awareness and Global Communication
Song, Kyoung-Sook (Dongeui Univ., Korea)
• The Use of Online English Lessons in Class with Students of Different Levels: Case study at a Japanese Univ.
Kamijo, Miwako (Sagami Women’s Univ., Japan)
•Psychodrama and Role Play: Authenticating experience in the foreign language classroom Figoni, William (Kindai Univ., Japan) & Imura, Makoto (Osaka Institute of Technology, Japan)
Session 2: L. Culture
• ‘It’s Complicated，: Jennifer Lopez and cinematic representations of Latina in American Culture
Hikage, Hisayuki (Reitaku Univ., Japan)
• Acceptances of Western Culture in Japanese Music Education
Sato, Keiji (Kyushu Univ., Japan)
• My Introduction to Teaching English through Movies
Foster, Julian (Fukuoka College of Health Sciences, Australia)
• Effects of Learner and Teacher Beliefs on EFL Learning Strategies: Cultural and situational influences
Pak, Hubert H. (Kongju National Uni., Korea)
Session 2: M. Roundtable
• An Effective Way of Teaching Military Terms in ESP Course: Using the Movie Band of Bothers
Yang, Sung-Woo (Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon, Korea), Jung, Hanki (Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon, Korea), &
Kim, Eunyoung (Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon, Korea)
• Short and Long Term Effects of Forum Based Written Corrective Feedback on the Students’ Writing Accuracy
Park, Chong Won (Pukyong National Univ., Korea)
• Designing MOOCs: Lessons learned
Aydin, Cengiz Hakan (Anadolu University, Turkey)
Session 2: N. ESP & Game
Bringing Minecraft into English Classroom Son, Jisun (Eulji Middle School, Korea)
Momilani MinecraftEdu: The impact of game-based learning on student motivation and engagement
Asselstine, Shane (Momilani Elementary School, USA) & Leong, Peter (Uni. Of Hawaii-Manoa, USA)
Workshop: Pedagogic Design Guidelines, as used for Instructional TV programs for English Language Learners in Turkey
Koumi, Jack (Educational Media Production Training, UK)
Session 2: O. Workshop
• Tips to Flip your Classroom: start small
Ahn, Sang-Jin (Hwagok Nursing and Business High School, Korea)
• Factors Explaining Instructor Integrated Use of Mobile Devices Pan, Cheng-Chang (Nova Southeastern Univ., USA),
Sivo, Stephen (Univ. of Central Florida, USA), &
Graham, Jeffrey (The Univ. of Texas Rio Grande Valley, USA)
Session 2: Poster Session
• Attitudes and Experiences on the Application of Web 2.0 to Facilitate English Language Learning
Myers, Shane (Kyung Hee Univ., Korea)
• Uhm, Aaron (Kookmin Univ., Korea)
• A Look at Esports and evaluation on League of Legends Garcia, Ruben A. (Sam Houston State Univ., USA) Munoz, Jorge (Sam Houston State Univ., USA) Munoz, Evelin (Sam Houston State Univ., USA) Grigsby, Alexa (Sam Houston State Univ., USA)
• Dismantling White Supremacist Patriarchy, One Teacher at a Time: Anti-racist, anti-sexist, anti-ableist pedagogy for pre-service teachers
Staples, Jeanine (Pennsylvania State Univ., USA)
Keynote Address & Plenary Session
The Future of Education: How Machine Learning will Inform Human Learning Rochelle, Jonathan (Google, USA)
• Plenary Session 1
Connecting the Dots with Language, Culture and Media: What does the geek culture tell us? Lee, Jason Yun Joon (Duksung Women’s Univ., Korea)
• Plenary Session 2
West, Mark (UNESCO, USA)
Session 1: A. Media
- DISCOVERe: A Frcsno State Univ. Tablet Initiative Tracz, Susan (California State Uni., Fresno, USA), Benavides, Otto (California State Uni., Fresno, USA), &Lam, Sarah (California State Uni., Fresno, USA)
• Teacher’s Perceptions of the Hour of Code and Fourth Grade Students’ Perceptions. O’Neal, Renee (Sam Houston State Univ., USA), &
Wilson, Tara (Sam Houston State Univ., USA)
From Konnichiwa to Aloha: A collaborative video project Ho, Curtis (Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, USA), Kimura, Bert (University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA), Kimura, Mary (Kansai University, Japan), & Kubota, Kenichi (Kansai University, Japan)
• Speech Speed Rates and Listener Hearing Problems in Movies & ATC Communications Klinger, Walter (University of Shiga Prefecture, Japan)
Session 1: B. Mobile
• Mobile Applications in Language Teaching
Csaba, Komlo (Eszterhazy Karoly Univ., Hungary)
• The Effect of Listening Comprehension through the Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Learning
Lee, Yu-Hwa (Keimyung Univ., Korea)
• How do Korean Teachers Think Mobile Learning in Teaching and Learning? Yun, Seongchul (Korea National Univ. of Education, Korea),
Zhang, Hui (Yanbian Univ., Chaina),Baek, Youngkyun (Boise State Univ., USA), & Cui, Xiangzhe (Yanbian Univ., China)
Session 1: C. Testing & Evaluation
A Survey of How Performance Assessment in English is being Conducted in High Schools in Korea
Park, Tae-Jun (Korea Institute for Curriculum & Evaluation)
• The Effects of an Internet-Based English Speaking Performance Assessment System on Korean EFL Students’ Speaking Ability
Yun, Jeehwan (Korea Institute for Curriculum, & Evaluation)
• What is a Key Player in Difficulty of Items?
Kim, Jun-Shik (Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation), Min, Hoky (Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation), &
Park, Yonghyo (Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation)
Session 1: D. Teacher Education
Effects of Songs in an EFL Classroom
Kim, Hye-Jeong (Kookmin Univ., Korea)
Memorization of Expressions from a Documentary Based on the Interdependence of Episodic and Semantic Memory
Rho, Yoon Ah (Mokwon Univ., Korea)
Suggestion for Managing Vocabulary Lists Using Multimedia
Im, Mi Jin (Kookmin Univ., Korea)
Why Animations in Enhancing L2 Vocabulary?
Lee, Ji Hyun (Kookmin Univ., Korea
Session 1: E. Movies
• Star Trek and Schopenhauer’s Simulacre Ontology: Star TrekX: Nemesis
Lee, Geon-Geun (Chosun Univ., Korea)
• Teaching Movies to Improve English Language Skills & Intercultural Knowledge
Park, Mae-Ran (Pukyong National Univ., Korea)
• The Impact of Shakespeare Quotation: How to teach English through The Man Without a Face (1993)
Koizumi, Yuto (Waseda Univ., Japan)
• Using Films to Teach Theology in the EAP Classroom
Kim, Kitai (Hannam Univ., Korea)
Session 1: F. Symposium
• How to Start and Legitimize an e-Sports Organization Garcia, Ruben A. (Sam Houston State Univ., USA), Munoz, Jorge (Sam Houston State Univ., USA), Munoz, Evelin (Sam Houston State Univ., USA), & Grigsby, Alexa (Sam Houston State Univ., USA)
Session 1: G. Workshop
Move to Blended Learning with Google Classroom? 50 Things You Can Do with Google Classroom
Keeler, Alice (California State Univ., Fresno, USA)
• MI-GO: A friendly robot to introduce computational thinking Loureiro, Maria Jose (Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal) &
Moreira, Filipe T. (Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal)
• Back to Old-School Dictation: What I have learned, experienced, and shared
Oh, Yura (Kookmin University, Korea)
• Lee, Young-Min (Kookmin Univ., Korea)
• Kim, Hyun-Bae (Kookmin Univ., Korea)
Session 2: H. Learning Online
• Exploring the Potential of an Online Simulated World to Engage Students in Social Studies
Paek, Seungoh (Univ. of Hawwai at Manoa, USA), Hoffman, Daniel L. (Columbia University), &
Au, Helen (University of Hawaii at Manoa)
• Integrating Technology in Homework: Flipgrid and Kaizena
Fitzgerald, Aaron T. (Mokwon Univ., Korea)
Learner Engagement in Online Writing Conference in Blended Learning at University Level
Lee, So (Hankuk Univ. of Foreign Studies, Korea) &
Lee, Chung Hyun (Hankuk Univ. of Foreign Studies, Korea)
• A Study on an Online English Teacher Training Course Employing Virtual Classrooms and Discussion Boards: The case for learners’ perceptions
Park, Sujung (Hankyan Gyber Univ., Korea)
Session 2: I. Media
• The Effects of a Learner-Centered Digital Storytelling Project in a Univ. Setting Park, Punahm (Duksung International Language Center, Korea) &
Redmond, Christopher (Duksung Women’s Univ., Korea)
• Early Experiences with ePortfolio-based Learning in an Open Distance eLearning Environment in the Philippines
Librero, Al Francis (Univ. of the Philippines Open Univ., Philippine)
• Reading Between the Lines: Effective approaches for integrating movie scripts in English classes
Daniel Svoboda (Hankuk Uni. of Foreign Studies, Korea)
• How Positives Perceptions of Lesson Delivery in Korean Cyber Universities Relate to Student Outcomes
Lange, Christopher (Joongbu Univ., Korea) & Costley, Jamie (Kongju National Univ., Korea)
Session 2: J. World Englishes
• Learning and Design: Lessons from European funded projects
Vrasidas, Charalambos (Univ. of Nicosia, Cyprus)
• Development of an Interactive Multimedia Spanish Learning Application with a Focus on Authentic Material
Blanco, Laura Maria Cortes (Kyushu, Univ., Japan) &
Fuyuno, Miharu (Kyushu Univ., Japan)
• Language Learning through Digital Bricolage Brandon, Sherman (Woosong Information College, Korea) &
Briggs, Neil (Woosong Univ., Korea)
• Adapting Teachers to ICT Classrooms
Ozkul, Ali E. (Anadolu Univ., Turkey)
Session 2: K. Teacher Education
• <Best Teacher Session>
Smart Education of Communication and Sharing Using Digital Media
Jung, Yongseok (Muwon Elementary School, Korea)
• <Best Teacher Session>
Project Based Language Learning with Technology and Media
Lim, Kyuyun (Changdeok Girls’ Middle School, Korea)
• <Best Teacher Session>
STEAM, SMART and Software Education Choi, Jae Joon (Munsan Elementary School, Korea)
• Words, Pauses, False Starts, Self-Corrections and Repetitions: Measuring language fluency in oral proficiency tests
Were, Kevin (Kookmin Univ., Korea)
Session 2: L. Methods and Approaches
• A Retrospective of over a Decade of an Online Master’s Degree Nancy Votteler (Sam Houston State Univ., USA) &
Price, Debra P. (Sam Houston State Univ., USA)
• Using Star Wars to Teach Story Structure to English Language Major Undergraduate Students
Joseph Vincent (Hankuk Univ. of Foreign Studies, Korea)
• A Reciprocally-Connected Way of Teaching English Through Supporting and Counter Examples in Movies
Iida, Yasuhiro (Osaka Medical College, Japan)
Session 2: M. Symposium
• A Service Design of Hybrid Employment Guidance Coaching on Internet Jin, Wenquan (Jeju National Univ., Korea),
Baek, Youngkyun (Boise State Univ., USA), &
Kim DoHyeun (Jeju National Univ., Korea)
• Teacher Candidate Perceptions of Effectiveness and Usefulness of On- and Offline Teacher Training Programs
Barker, Nan (California State Univ., Fresno, USA), Tracz, Susan (California State Univ., Fresno, USA), Beare, Paul (California State Univ., Fresno, USA), Torgerson, Colleen (California State Univ., Fresno, USA), & Lam, Sarah (California State Univ., Fresno, USA)
Session 2: N. Workshop
• Office Mix in Education Easily Creates and Shares Interactive Online Lessons
Song, Eun-Jung (Microsoft, Korea)
• Skype in the Classroom
Song, Eun-Jung (Microsoft, Korea)
Lee, Jawon(Conference Chair, Kookmin University)
As the international lingua franca, it is more and more important for people to have knowledge of English in order to communicate around the world. Educational institutes in Korea are aware of this but often their language teaching methods cause many students to lose motivation in learning the English language.
In the SAI joint conference, we would like to bring English education back to life through media and movies. The use of media and technology allows language learning to go beyond the confines of the language classroom into real life. And, as we all know, classroom settings are not enough to really learn a foreign language. Movies, on the other hand, provide richness and interest to students, bringing language and culture into vivid life through narrative and dramatic scenes.
Our concern in this conference is how to use both media and movies in the classroom. For this, scholars and language specialists from 15 countries including Korea will gather. Researchers and educators from ICEM, based in North and South America as well as Europe will suggest various ways to use media. Presentations from STEM members from Korea and ATEM members from Japan will present a range of approaches to teaching with movies. Around 400 Korean EFL teachers from elementary and high schools have also been invited to hear about new ways to approach English education in Korea.
We have worked for over a year to prepare for this conference and hope that the outcome will be that theory and practice come together to help make a significant contribution to English education in Korea.
Distinguished speakers, honorable guests and esteemed STEM members, fellow English teachers, and ELT colleagues, I would like to express the warmest of welcomes to all of you here at Kookmin University attending the 2016 STEM-ATEM-ICEM International conference in Seoul. This conference is the joint conference for STEM(the Society for Teaching English Through Media), ATEM(The Association for Teaching English through Movies), and ICEM(International Council for Educational Media). This is very special conference because three teaching Associations host International conference together for the first time. Also, this conference is very special for our Association, STEM. This conference marks the 20th anniversary of STEM. For the past 20 years, we have played important role in English Education of Korea. Our accomplishment has been possible with great support from ELT colleagues. My deepest appreciation and gratitude goes to all individuals and organizations who have contributed to the STEM.
I also would like to my special appreciation to Jawon Lee(Kookmin University), conference chair, and all board members for organizing this conference with great dedication. I would like to extend my gratitude to keynote speakers, Jonathan Rochelle(Google), Mark West(UNESCO), all of our plenary speakers, presenters, and participants. Finally, my special thanks goes to Dr. Yu, Ji Soo, president of Kookmin University who gives us a chance to hold this conference at this nice campus. I also want to express my deepest appreciation to presidents of affiliated English Education Societies in Korea attending at this conference. I hope all participants enjoy the presentations of this conference academically inspiring and stimulating through discussions on the development of English Education.
I hope all of you enjoy the 2016 SAI International Conference in Seoul.
Kurata, Makoto (President of ATEM, Kyoto University of Foreign Studies, Japan)
STEM, ATEM, and ICEM, which are collectively called “SAI” for short, will be working together to provide you with a pioneering global conference at Kookmin University in Seoul, Korea from September 23-25, 2016. Because of their educationally constructive similarities and their differences in perspectives, the three partner academic organizations will be able to bring about an incredibly unique synergism which is sure to renew our teaching motivation and add to the idea bank for all of us who will take part in the creation of this collaborative meeting of the minds.
As you might be well aware, both the Society for Teaching English through Media (STEM) in Korea and the Association for Teaching English through Movies (ATEM) in Japan have been successful movie-oriented academic partners for almost two decades, and as such the two organizations are eager to emphasize the fact that movies are not simply a hodgepodge of realistic elements, but have a grand potential to be shaped into a choice collection of carefully-planned audio-visual educational resources. The two North-East Asian movie-based educational organizations strongly believe in the value of awareness raising of the multi-level, communication-centered, wisely selected linguistic and cultural features that are intentionally interwoven in the best of films. In addition, good movies are so skillfully supervised and so dexterously delivered to us by script writers, directors, actors, and actresses and the whole film-making community of artists, craftsmen and technicians that movie aficionados in schools, both teachers and students, will continue to discover new multicultural, multigenerational understandings of human communication in the attention- getting, awareness-raising dynamism and professional authenticity of films.
The International Council for Educational Media (ICEM), which was originally known as the International Council for Educational Films, puts its emphasis on using films especially created for pedagogical purposes and classroom settings, rather than films produced for the general public. However, this organization has broadened its pedagogical parameters and it is now geared primarily toward applying the technological aspects of media to the development of good classroom practices. Different as it may sound from STEM and ATEM, ICEM can not only go along with the pedagogical rapport that STEM and ATEM have long been developing bilaterally, but it can also add an array of interesting spices to the buffet of our familiar movie-based teaching approaches.
The participants in this unique heterogeneous collaborative conference, which is to be held in one of Korea’s key academic hubs, will definitely play important roles in making this academic powwow well and truly attractive and most importantly thought-provoking. Thank you for your kind attention.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
On behalf of the International Council for Educational Media i would like to warmly welcome all members of ATEM, STEM and ICEM.
ICEM was founded in 1950 with the intent of promoting and developing educational media and its use in a variety of pedagogical fields. The preliminary name of the organisation was ICEF, International Council for Educational Film and as the founders foresaw the development of the field they altered the name to International Council for Educational Media – ICEM.
Since the very beginning ICEM has strived to advance both pedagogy and technology – from the 16mm films of ago to the digital and interactive content of today.
Sixty six years on and ICEM continues to fulfil its goals as a non-profit, non-governmental organisation which is highly active and renowned in the field of educational media and technology. Its individual and institutional members constitute a unique combination of technology experts, both public and independent commercial media producers, scientists in the field of media pedagogy, school administrators, and even ministries.
This distinctive blend of expertise both from theory and practice, plus its world-wide operation, provides all ICEM members with invaluable insights when it comes to decision making, recognising trends and fostering international cooperation and co-production. ICEM also maintains operational relations with UNESCO and other international organisations to ensure its members are globally informed and its objectives are continuously met worldwide. ICEM is currently active in over 30 countries.
Cooperation with the European Commission and various educational institutions operating at local, regional, and international levels, enables ICEM to efficiently utilise its vast pool of resources by participating in innovative projects in the educational media field. These projects help ensure that the ICEM expertise is not only continuously expanded but also applied effectively at hands-on levels where it is needed most.
The Educational Media International is lCEM’s refereed academic journal published by Routlege (Taylor & Francis) and is issued quarterly.
Educational media has made a considerable impact on schools, colleges and providers of open and distance education. This journal provides an international forum for the exchange of information and views on new developments in educational and mass media. Contributions are drawn from academics and professionals whose ideas and experiences come from a number of countries and contexts.
It is covered by the British Education Index; Educational Research Abstracts online (ERA), Research into higher Education Abstracts; ERIC; EBSCO host; and Proquest Information and Learning.
In closing, I wish to express my gratitude to all participants and organizers for their efforts to organizing STEM, ATEM and ICEM joint conference, and I wish a very fruitful and productive meeting.
Benavides, Otto, (NASA Educator Resource Center at Fresno State, USA)
During the early part of the 20th Century, there was a lot of speculation about what the future would bring us. Cartoonists and movie producers gave us a glimpse of the future. Many of their views/predictions actually happened but many did not. Today, we have seen a lot of predictions but we do not know what will actually happen or do we?
This presentation will explore some predictions and challenge the audience to think about what has happened and what we can possibly have in the future. The presentation will not pretend to issue predictions but rather to give an opportunity to explore and to think about the past, present and future.
Gerber, Hannah R., (Sam Houston State University)
Increasingly people are turning to online resources, communities, and spaces to engage in informal learning activities. These informal learning activities take place in a vast array of settings and situations — from afterschool environments that rely upon the guidance of a caring adults/mentors, to informal learning communities that take place in and across spaces such as Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter, where reliance upon others in the community is central to the meaning making that occurs in and across these spaces.
This keynote address opens with an examination of the role that social media analytics and social media metadata have on understanding what is happening within informal learning spaces, particularly within gaming spaces, such as PokemonGo and League of Legends. This talk explores how social media metadata can be harnessed to understand meaning making, literacy learning, and literacy development within these spaces. By examining social media analytics as a new space for furthering the discussion on learning analytics in informal spaces, we can better understand traces of learning that happen informally across spaces. Finally, this talk concludes with a discussion on the ethics of data collection in these spaces, considering how to use social media metadata — through modes and levels of concealment — that divulges sensitive user information in order to take ethical responsibility in one’s research in these spaces.
Kurata, Makoto (Kyoto University of Foreign Studies)
My presentation aims to provide the attendees with some linguistic tips which might come in handy in their classroom settings. I believe STEM, ATEM and ICEM all have a large membership of junior and senior high school teachers, who are interested in learning how to pull themselves out of their ruts of routine activities by effectively introducing a few movie scenes to their classroom teaching practices.
As an applied linguist and a teacher who teaches a course called “Introduction to English Linguistics at my school in Kyoto, Japan, I’d like to suggest that there are quite a few interesting linguistic phenomena embedded in movies. Some sociolinguists claim that movie scripts are not good samples of naturally spoken language, but I believe movie scripts are necessarily a collection of carefully calculated audio-visual materials and thus they are cut out to be good teaching tools. I would call movie scripts “professionally authentic audiovisual materials.”
What I’d like to share with you at the 2016 SAI conference are easy to apply to your classes, no matter who your target audience is. The linguistic phenomena I’m planning to give you are (1) Alliterative Expressions, (2) Compound Nouns, (3) Latin expressions vs. Anglo-Saxon expressions, (4) Metonymy, etc.
(1) Alliterative Expressions (from proverbs)
Make hay while the sun shines.
It takes two to tango.
The squeaking wheel gets the oil.
(2) Compound Noun vs. Adjective + Noun
A blackboard used to be really a black board. Now a blackboard is not a black board but a green board; it is still called a blackboard, not a greenboard.
(3) Latin expressions vs. Anglo-Saxon expressions
Max assembled the machine last year. (맥스는 작년에 그 기계를 조립했습니다.)
Max compiled the dictionary last year. (맥스는 작년에，그 사전을 편찬했습니다.)
Max composed the music last year. (맥스는 작년에 그 음악을 작곡했습니다.)
Max organized his thoughts quietly. (맥스는 조용히 생각을 정리했습니다.)
Max is richer than the rest of us combined.
(맥스는 우리 모두가 합해도 당해낼 수 없을 만큼 부자입니다.)
N.B. The Korean translation has been made available by Ms. Naoko KANEDA.
Max put together the machine last year.
Max put together the dictionary last year.
Max put together the music last year.
Max put his thoughts together quietly.
Max is richer than the rest of us put together.
The White House says that President Barak Obama will visit Tokyo and Seoul in September this year.
Somebody is at the front door. I’ll answer it.
(5) The longest word in English
smiles or pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanokoniosis?
The movie scenes I’ll be using are from Superman (1978), What Women Want (2000), About Time (2013), Erin Brockovich (2000), etc. You don’t have to have a deep understanding of linguistics when and if you teach these linguistic phenomena. What you do is to explain a little about the phenomena and show them movie scenes which contain the linguistic data. Cliche has it, “To see it is to believe.”
If time allows, I’d also like to share with you an interesting piece of software which you might want to install onto your laptop and use for your students in the near future. I hope that you find my presentation enlightening and entertaining and that you feel that linguistics is neither an esoteric study of language nor an armchair theory which is not simply based on real language practices.
Seo, Eun-mi (Howon University)
This paper is about developing small talk strategies through the film Begin again. Students need to develop small talk strategies through the film so that they can learn how to carry the conversation about the several social issues in the global society. Small talk means the basic unit of the discourse to carry the meaningful conversation. There are several issues to be discussed thought the film such as divorce, break-up, teenager issues and other problems in the society. In this paper, students will learn how to discuss those social issues using small talk strategies. Students will be aware of the social issues through the films. Films show the present phenomena of the daily lives. The classroom application will be discussed using the film Begin again.
Bradley, Joff P.N. (Teikyo University)
This presentation will explore an effective approach to teaching English through film which concentrates upon the oeuvre of one particular director for the whole academic year. With a focus on the work of Woody Allen (philosophical issues, comedy/tragedy, reality/fiction) and Alfred Hitchcock (because of the renewed interest in his persona), I build a theoretical model that draws upon CLIL and multiliteracies to create a flipped classroom that promotes autonomous learning through student-led discussions.
I draw on a variety of practical techniques and valuable learning aids (movie maps, shared thematics, grammar and tense work, student-led research, museum visits, extensive film viewing, music research, comparative film posters, presentations on particular writers, thinkers, artists, film-makers etc) to show how one can sustain such a class.
I make the case that film is not just a poor substitute for literature but can be equally effective in terms of teaching not only the target language but also fostering intercultural awareness, critical thinking skills meaning-making and even philosophical thinking.
One of the intentions of the presentation is to show how the teaching of cinema/film whence fused with CLIL and multiliteracies can be an effective pedagogical tool across different departments, curricula, and student demographics.
Joff P.N. Bradley & David Kennedy, On giving ourselves over to industrial temporal objects,
Journal of Engaged Pedagogy, Vol. 14, 2015. Joff P.N. Bradley, Pleasurably Bepuzzled: CBI/CLIL and film, Forum of the Center for Teaching and Learning Teikyo University, Vol. 2, 2015.
Kadoyama, Teruhiko (Hiroshima International University)
Although films have great potential as effective teaching materials due to their motivational effect, for reasons of copyright restriction, their use is usually limited to class time and it is difficult to extend their motivational effect to learning activities outside the classroom. Furthermore, the more class time teachers use to show films for listening comprehension, the less time they have for discussion and other activities. Thus, it is often difficult to secure sufficient time for both film viewing and language exercises during a limited class period. In this context, by providing a variety of film-based exercises and resources on an accompanying Moodle e-learning course, teachers can streamline their teaching process and conduct successful blended instruction. In this presentation, the author reports on how Moodle can help teachers to successfully conduct film-based classes.
Use of Moodle in Language Classes
Moodle is a free software application designed for use as a learning management system (LMS), which is often used in blended learning, flipped classrooms, and other e-learning projects in colleges and universities. For example, Nakamura, Johnson, and Smith (2015) reported on a multimedia self-access Moodle course for lower-level Japanese EFL students. Using Moodle, teachers are able to distribute handouts and other teaching resources to students online, while students can answer quizzes, submit reports, swap opinions on the forum, and so on.
How Can Moodle Help Teachers in Film-Based English Classes?
1. Moodle provides teachers with additional time for face-to-face activities.
Table 1 shows a variety of activities in a film-based ESP class that the author conducted, in which students from medical-related disciplines learned English communication and medical issues. In this class, short film segments were extracted from medically themed films, such as “Awakenings” and “Patch Adams.” Conventionally, pre-viewing activities usually take approximately 20 minutes of class time. However, by using online quizzes, this time can be reduced to only five minutes, thus providing additional time for film viewing, role play, and discussion. Some of the post-viewing activities, including grammar exercises, can also be conducted online.
List of tasks for each session of a class
|Pre-viewing Activities||Vocabulary||Vocabulary word exercise|
|Useful Expressions||Key sentences exercise|
|Listening Tips||Explanation on phonological changes|
|Viewing Activities||True/F alse Questions||Comprehension questions|
|Partial Dictation||Questions to determine understanding|
|Role Play||Role play activity using film dialogue|
|Post-viewing Activities||Discussion Topics||Discussion on medical issues|
|Grammar in Focus||Explanation and exercise on grammar points|
|Language in Focus||Explanation on language functions|
2. Moodle can be utilized for Flipped Classrooms
Medically themed films provide an interesting format for learning about various healthcare topics. They can also be utilized as a catalyst for discussion in ESP classes. For example, scenes from the film “Awakenings” provide ample discussion topics related to various medical issues; however, some background knowledge on both Alzheimer’s disease and the concept of informed consent is essential to meaningful class discussion. Moreover, students often struggle with grammar and suitable expressions. Thus, using an accompanying e-learning Moodle course, students can perform the following actions: Before class: Read and watch various online resources relevant to the topics using the flipped classroom approach In class: Use sample answers and useful expressions as a reference
After class: Form their own opinions based on in-class discussion and submit them as reports, or upload them on a forum.
3. Moodle can provide various supplemental exercises according to learners’ proficiency levels
In order to improve learners’ English proficiency, it is of great importance to promote their out-of-classroom learning. Using Moodle, teachers can provide various online exercises according to learners’ proficiency levels, such as a TOEIC Preparation Course for high proficiency learners and a Basic Grammar & Listening Course for low proficiency learners. Badges of honor can be awarded online to learners who have successfully completed the courses assigned to them.
In principle, due to copyright restrictions, film scenes and audio tracks cannot be posted on Moodle. It is possible, however, to develop film-based exercises using public domain films, and these may include a Film-based Shadowing Exercise or a Film-based TOEIC-style test. These exercises are useful ways to extend the motivational effects of films to out-of- classroom learning activities and thus to extend the limited practice time available in the classroom.Method
An experiment was conducted with 122 students from medical-related disciplines, to verify the effectiveness of this blended instruction. The participants were first- and second- year students in the nursing, clinical nutrition, and pharmaceutical sciences departments at a university in Hiroshima Prefecture. Their perceptions and preferences regarding the Moodle courses were surveyed through pre-treatment and post-treatment questionnaires, while their listening abilities were measured through listening pretests and posttests. The results revealed that the treatment was effective in promoting students’ out-of-classroom learning activities, and a significant improvement was observed in regard to their listening abilities. More substantial discussion was observed in the classroom, since they were well prepared with the help of the Moodle courses. The implications of the findings will be discussed in the presentation.
Nakamura, M., Johnson, A., & Smith, A. (2015). English Foundations: A Supplemental Moodle Course for Outside the Class. MoodleMoot Japan 2015 Proceedings, 17-21.
Kono, Hiromi, (Kyoto Junior College of Foreign Languages)
During Easter of 2008, the BBC televised a film about Florence Nightingale entitled ‘Reputations: Florence Nightingale’. Described as “the untold story of one of Britain’s greatest heroines”, the film claims that Florence Nightingale was no heroic figure and actually administered “the kiss of death to thousands of men in her care”. The traditional perception of Florence Nightingale is one of a woman who played an important role in the founding of the modern nursing system. However, the BBC produced and aired a film that proposes a view of Nightingale that is in total contrast to the familiar narrative of “The Lady with the Lamp”.
Based on Hugh Small’s book, Florence Nightingale: Avenging Angel (1998), the film blames Nightingale for the fatal loss of thousands of soldiers and that actually health care reform was achieved because of her incompetence concerning hygiene problems. This discrediting of Nightingale in ‘Reputations’ was severely criticized by the historian Lynn MacDonald who accused the BBC of presenting a distorted and wholly misleading characterization of an influential figure. The BBC responded by insisting they had merely challenged accepted history in an ethical and investigative manner by providing “a broad range of sources, (and by) giving a broad range of opinions”.
There is no doubt that most people are familiar with the name of Florence Nightingale and that she is considered as a figure associated with great heroism. Her story has been told through numerous media formats including children’s picture books, long stories, poems, films, theater plays as well as TV and radio dramas. ‘Reputations: Florence Nightingale’ is a TV drama film that is categorized as a biopic. According to George F. Custen in Bio/Pics How Hollywood Constructed Public History (1992), the biopic is “the life of a historical person, past or present”. Custen goes on to argue that films categorized in this way have created a new genre which have, to some extent, “the producers’ own personal visions of what constituted a great life”. That means a biopic deals with biographical detail but is, at the same time, heavily influenced by personal views or interpretations. Thus, the question that needs to be asked is whether or not a film that is heavily influenced by personal views should be deemed a true story?
In this presentation, based on a thorough examination of the life of Florence Nightingale,- 15 – ‘Reputation: Florence Nightingale’ will be examined through two factors. Firstly, what does real life in a film mean? Secondly, how does the re-construction of a historic life influence the production of the film and the audience reception? During this examination, I intend to define the underlying characteristics of the biopic and prove that such films must be regarded as entertainment based on fiction and not fact.
Custen, F. G. (1992). Bio/Pics: How Hollywood Constructed Public History. New Brunswick,
NJ: Rutgers University Press. The Telegraph, 28th September 2011, ‘BBC accused of ‘belittling’ Florence Nightingale’. Fillmore, C. (1979). On fluency. In C. Fillmore, D. Kempler, & W. Wang (Eds.), Individual differences in language ability and language behavior (pp. 85-101). New York: Academic Press.
Yokoyama, Hitoshi (Kyoto Women’s University)
The presentation focuses on the pragmatic analysis of the usage of the similar expressions between “feel ‘bad’ “ and “feel ‘badly’ “, which has intrigued me from the following panel response to ‘Usage Panel Question’:
When referring to your mental physical state, do you say, “I feel bad”?
“I feel badly”?
“I use ‘I feel bad’ to express a physical condition, but ‘I feel badly’ to express an emotional response.”
(Harper Dictionary of Contemporary Usage, 2nd ed., 1985)
The presenter will mainly discuss the actual use of “feel ‘badly'” of this user’s emotional intent, selected mainly from the movie script data housed in the ATEM Kansai Chapter’s (presently Nishinihon Chapter) voluntarily-made movie corpus database (ver. 3, 2009) which contains almost 1,000 movies scripts, concordance lines from COCA (The Corpus of Contemporary American English), and some other corpus and media sources.
(1) JANE: Don’t feel bad. (27 Dresses, 2008) <00:28:38>
(2) GEORGE: We live next door to each other, and I feel bad. (Erin Brockovich, 2000)
(3) SCOTT: I just want to live my life and not feel bad about it.
(Freedom Writers, 2007) <01:39:20>
(4) JEREMY: I feel real bad about this. (Indecent Proposal, 1993) <00:07:46>
(5) VINCENT: But don’t feel bad, we just met each other. (Pulp Fiction, 1994)
(6) ANNE: Please don’t do this because you feel badly on my account. (Anne of Green
Gables, the Sequel, 1988) <01:13:50>
(7) LAURIE: Don’t feel too badly, Jo. (Little Women, 1994) <01:23:10>
(8) The top five clubs, including fourth-place Cerezo Osaka and Kashima Antlers, are separated by just six points. “I had a bunch of chances in the first half and had I taken even one of them, I could have made life so much easier for us,” said Is hihara, who scored his eighth goal of the year. “So I feel badly about today’s performance more than anything.” “We have four games to go, and I want to score in every one of them. When it’s all said and done, I hope we can cele-brate again with everyone.”
Reference data/responses cited from Harper Dictionary of Contemporary Usage, 2nd ed, 1985 as follows:
(8) (rejecting “feel badly”) “And I feel terrible when someone else says it!”
(9) “ ‘Feeling badly’ is the mark of an inept dirty old man.”
(10) “I avoid both. I would simply say, ‘I don’t feel well.’ “
(11) “Sometimes I use one, sometimes the other. When I feel really terrible, I say ‘bad.’ “
(12) “I say ‘fee bad.’ You don’t feel ‘goodly,’ do you?”
(13) “I avoid the issue by saying, ‘I feel lousy.’ “
(14) “ ‘Badly’ in this use seems a bit pedantic, but I would say, ‘I feel badly about letting you down.’ “
(15) “Both sound awkward to me. I’d say, ‘I don’t feel well.’”
(16) “My sense of touch is good – so I don’t ‘feel badly.’ “
(17) “I generally say, ‘I feel like death, awful, etc.’ But ‘bad’ is the answer to the question.”
(18) “I say ‘I don’t feel good.’ “
(19) (voting “no” to both) “I particularize the symptoms. That’s much more impressive. “
(20) (voting “yes” to badly) “But what I really say is ‘I feel terrible’ (or ‘lousy’).”
(21) “Yet ‘I feel poorly’ does distinguish between health and poverty.”
(22) (No to both) “I should say ‘I feel ill’ or ‘depressed.’ “
(23) “I distinguish. Some situations seem to call for ‘bad,’ others for ‘badly.’ “
(24) “ ‘Feel badly’ is a dainty-ism used by people who think ‘bad’ is too blunt and crude.”
(25) “I use ‘I feel bad’ to express a physical condition, but ‘I feel badly’ to express an emotional response.” (underlined by presenter)
(26) “If my tactile sense were so blunted that I felt badly, I’d feel po’ly about it.” (underlined by presenter)
(27) “ ‘I feel badly’ is godawful because it signifies an effort to be elegant by one obviously ignorant.” (underlined by presenter)
(28) “I’m sure I’d really say, ‘I feel lousy.’ “
(29) “Neither. I’d say, ‘I don’t feel well’ or ‘I feel awful’ – which in principle, I suppose, is the same as ‘I feel bad.’ “
Kim, Hyung-Sun (Chosun University) Kim, Baegseung (Chonnam National University)
This study examines a case of L2-learners’ acquisition of the English articles through media. The usage of articles, especially the definite article, is considered one of the most difficult grammatical aspects in English to Korean learners; it is arguably claimed that their L1 is an article-less language. Phonological absence of articles seems to make its learning more complicated. It has been an important part of school grammar, yet the curriculum involves little grammatical concepts and a lot of exceptional cases to memorize, often without context. However, whether or not to use an article for a noun depends on the context, which provides clues for learners to apply grammatical concepts properly. Learners should be provided with good concepts of English articles along with a great deal of intense input in context.
The first half of the study is to propose a drama-embedded grammar-learning model. A grammar project was carried out in a class of 20 Korean students in a Korean university; they watched a TV drama The Newsroom and engaged in a series of streamlined learning procedures of the grammar project for five weeks. The Newsroom was chosen due to a variety of topics and the subsequent rich uses of articles in broad context. The project adopted the cognitive + communicative (C + C) model (Newby, 2015), which postulates the four learning stages: awareness, conceptualization, proceduralization, and performance. To establish the awareness stage, the gist of the grammatical concepts of the English articles from Hawkins (1978), Guillaume (1984), Hewson (1972), and Cho (1988) was introduced to students with practice sets. For conceptualization, they watched edited clips of chosen episodes, which they had previously watched individually. With subtitles on the screen, the uses of the definite articles in the scenes were discussed by associating relevant grammatical concepts and context as whole-class activities. For the learning stage of proceduralization, students discussed the uses of the definite articles in groups utilizing the script of the episode. Finally, for the performance-stage learning, students engaged in English conversations with topics related to the corresponding episode.
The second part of the study is to show the efficacy of the grammar-learning model. Pre- and post-tests were developed according to the C + C learning stages. The tests include fill- in-the-blank tasks, tasks of article insertion in given context, and essay writing. The results will be examined to find (a) if participants show different degrees of acquisition for each stage of learning; (b) if different subclasses of nouns trigger different degrees of learning of the articles; and most importantly, (c) if the grammar project employing The Newsroom in the C+C perspective is an effective way for learning the English articles at all. Pedagogical implications will be discussed in practical viewpoints, i.e., designing learning activities to fit a particular learning stage, to focus on the use of articles for certain classes of nouns, for instance matter/abstract nouns, that learners might reveal greater difficulties in learning, and even to meet learners’ individual needs.
* This work was supported by research fund from Chosun University, 2015.
**1st author: Kim, Hyung-Sun; Corresponding author: Kim, Baegseung
Declarative Questions (DQs) in Use: Speech acts performed by DQs
Watanabe, Shin (Reitaku University)
Declarative questions are questions expressed by declarative clauses and found particularly in casual conversation (Biber et al., 1999, p. 211; Carter & McCarthy, 2006, 291d, 410a, 430; Huddleston & Pullum，2002, pp. 881-883):
(1) [Speaker A is recounting how an elderly relative has found a good place to live in her old age.]
A: It’s a little terraced house. And sort of very old fashioned but spotlessly clean and very cozy.
B: Oh well.
A: New kitchen new what not.
A: And a thousand and something a month.
B: Yeah. So you’re pleased?
A: Oh, I’m relieved. Yes. Yes. (Carter & McCarthy, 2006, 410a)
(2) A: So you had a good day at work then?
B: Yes it was all right. (Carter & McCarthy, 2006, 410a)
In this presentation I contribute, based on Suzuki (2012) and Watanabe & Suzuki (2015), to a further understanding of DQs’ discourse functions or their speech acts (SA). DQs are so frequent in casual speech that for advanced learners, to know how they work in context is critical to achieve near native fluency.
I will look at two (classes of) SAs with more emphasis on the latter. The first one is confirmation. This is the most frequent, and the most well-known SA performed with DQs. An acclaimed ESL textbook Touch Stone 4 (McCarthy et al., 2006) has a lesson titled “So, it’s your birthday?” only for this DQ function. Examples have already been given in (1) and (2).
The second, less known but equally important class includes various SAs of a negative quality (e.g. accusations, complaints, criticisms, disapproval, stating annoyance/ disbelief/ doubt, etc.):
(3) a. You don’t like N.Y. values? (New York Daily Ne^s, January 15, 2016)
b. You are wearing that? (Tannen, 2006)
c. Oh, you put onions in stuffing? (Tannen, 2001, p. 3)
d. Now you are gonna give me a hard time too? ((3d-i) are from The Devil Wears Prada)
e. I’m sorry. I can’t believe this. You are defending her?
f. They are replacing Miranda?
g. You are really surprised?
h. …and she has no idea?
i. That’s what you are wearing?
If a speaker does not like what they understand in the ongoing discourse, they can use a DQ and can have it heard as an accusation, a criticism, a disagreement, an expression of disbelief, etc. In such situations, DQs are uttered in combination with emotional verbal features (e.g. word selection, intonation, speech rate & volume, etc.) and non-verbal behaviors (e.g. eye movements, facial expressions, gestures, postures, etc. ) (cf. Mehrabian, 1971; Tannen, 2006). Precisely for this complexity, I will demonstrate that movies are a helpful medium where we can observe and learn DQs in use.
For example, in the following scene from the movie The Devil Wears Prada the first DQ (You are going to Paris?) occurs as a confirmation. The second DQ (Now you are gonna give me a hard time too? ), on the other hand, is an accusation:
(1) [INT. LILY’s GALLEY-NIGHT Lily is very upset with Andrea.]
Lily: Have fun in Paris.
[Lily leaves and Nate approaches. Nate is in his usual casual clothes and unshaven as usual.]
Nate: You’re going to Paris? 은 checking his inference from Have fun in Paris.
Andy: Uh, yeah. It just happened.
Nate: I thought Paris was a big deal for Emily…
[Andy momentarily avoids his eyes, rolls her eyes, and then sighs. ]
Andy: Great. Now you are gonna give me a hard time too? 은accusing Nate of being inconsiderate
[EXT. NYC STREET – NIGHT – Andy storms out of the gallery, but is near tears. Nate follows. ]
(The Devil Wears Prada; Kameyama, 2011, p.154)
Andy verbally accuses Nate with the second DQ (Now you are gonna give me a hard time too? ) and her negative attitude is also highlighted by her non-verbal behaviors (i.e. She avoids Nate’s eyes, rolls her eyes, sighs, storms out of the gallery and is near tears) . This illustrates an advantage of using movies as learning tools. Linguistic and non-linguistic communicative elements are all provided to learners in one multi-media package.
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman Grammar of
Spoken and Written English. Pearson Education Limited. Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (2006). Cambridge grammar of English. Cambridge University Press.
Caracciolo, J. (Producer), & Frankel, D. (Director). (2006). The devil we^rs Prada [Motion
Picture]. United States: Fox 2000 Pictures. Huddleston, R., & Pullum, G K. (2002). The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kameyama, T. (2011).着fJS魔 (名作映画完全HU7集)』. (亀山太一, Ed.)
名古屋: 株式会社7才-O 7夕事業部. McCarthy, M., McCarten, J., & Sandiford, H. (2006). Touchstone 4 Student’s Book.
Cambridge University Press. Mehrabian, A. (1971). Silent Messages. Belmont, Californina: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc.
Suzuki, I. (2012). 口語英文法0世界_平叙疑問文0意味応答I二関L/C_. 修士論文,麗澤大学, 大学院修士課程英語教育専攻. Tannen, D. (2001). I only say this because I love you: Talking to your parents, partner, sibs,
and kids when you’re all adults. A Ballentine Book . Tannen, D. (2006). You ‘re wearing that? Understanding mothers and daughters in
conversation. New York: Ballantine Books. Watanabe, S., & Suzuki, I. (2015). So you don’t read Runway?: How declarative questions
work (oral presentation) . The 26th Annual Conference of the East Japan Chapter
of Association of Teaching English through Movies (ATEM) on November 29th, 2015.
Laverty, Raymond (ICEM, Austria)
The manuscript will be handed out on the presentation day. Conventionally, associations outside Korea, including the ICEM, send their completed manuscripts after the conference. It would be appreciated if you could allow us to follow this procedure in this case as well and send our manuscripts after the proceedings.
Ray Laverty is an Irish citizen currently residing and working Austria. He graduated from the Dublin Institute of Technology having studied Mechanical Engineering and later went on to teach technical and business English in Austria. He has been working as a self-employed instructor and free-lance teacher for various third level educational facilities in Vienna and Lower Austria for almost twenty years.
In addition to the teaching profession, Ray Laverty has also served as the Secretary General of ICEM and member of the ICEM Executive Committee since 2006. He has also coordinated ICEM’s participation in various international projects in cooperation with CARDET, Cyprus, a member organization of ICEM primarily focused on the planning and execution of pan-European projects in education at all levels.
Iwasaki, Hirosada (University of Tsukuba)
It is important for teachers to help learners to be autonomous in learning. Along that line, this study explores incidental vocabulary learning, because not only enhancing vocabulary knowledge is crucial for successful foreign language learning (Nation & Webb, 2010), but also learning new words unintentionally gives learners more chances to be autonomous in expanding their vocabulary (Hulstijn, 2008).
It is worth noting then that video materials can provide learners with rich exposure to natural language use because of their multi-channel characteristics, and the role of video materials as a source of incidental vocabulary learning has been drawing more attention. The present study uses as an experimental material one of the TED talks, or short presentations by professionals in their fields, with English and Japanese subtitles. Few studies have empirically investigated the extent to which watching subtitled videos improves learners’ vocabulary knowledge over time (Ahn, 2013). The present study aims to examine how successful it is for students to learn vocabulary incidentally through a subtitled video.
2 Previous studies on intentional/incidental vocabulary learning and subtitles
A distinction is often made between intentional and incidental learning (Hulstijn, 2008). Intentional vocabulary learning involves conscious learning of specific words or phrases with vocabulary lists and/or dictionaries. In contrast, incidental vocabulary learning entails learners’ unconscious guessing meanings of new words and memorizing them while engaged in reading or listening.
Another issue related to the present study is presence or absence of subtitles. Many previous studies have examined the effect of subtitled video materials on vocabulary acquisition in SLA (e.g., Etemadi, 2012; Holobow, Lambert, & Sayegh, 1984; Williams & Thorne, 2000). The use of subtitled video materials in incidental vocabulary learning is based on the assumption that learners need comprehensible input in order to develop their vocabulary knowledge (e.g., Ellis, 1994; Krashen, 1985). Previous research, however, has not been able to consistently demonstrate that subtitled video materials improve L2 vocabulary learning. Chiquito (1994) assumed that subtitles help learners to understand and retain information in their L2, but found that the effect was highly dependent on such tasks as understanding or recall and also video scenes used in learning. Etemadi (2002) found that a subtitled news video improved learners’ general understanding of news contents, but not to influence their vocabulary recognition skills. Thus, despite the general view that subtitled video materials contribute to vocabulary learning, it remains unsolved how this actually takes place.
Therefore, the purpose of the present study was carried out as action research to examine whether viewing a subtitled video and subsequent note-taking and summarization activities results in incidental vocabulary learning for learners with different vocabulary sizes. The specific research questions (RQs) addressed here are as follows:
RQ1: Do note-taking and summarization of subtitled video materials cause incidental vocabulary learning in EFL learners?RQ2: Does initial vocabulary size affect the extent of incidental vocabulary learning?
3. Method: Participant, material, procedure and scoring
The participants analyzed in the present study were 18 Japanese first-year students majoring in Health and Physical Education. They were divided into larger and smaller vocabulary size groups based on the results of a PC version of the Mochizuki vocabulary size test. The descriptive statistics of this test are shown in Table 1. The difference between these two groups was confirmed as significant using an independent-samples t-test, t(16) = -3.33, p = .004, d = 1.57.
Table 1 Descriptive Statistics of the Mochizuki Vocabulary Size Test of Larger and Smaller Vocabulary Size Groups
Next, the material used for the study was a 10-minute online TED talk by Matt Killingworth, titled Want to be happier? Stay in the moment (Killingworth, 2011), which contains 1,814 words and 91 sentences with Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level 9.9. The material was presented with Japanese, English, or no subtitles in different weeks The target vocabulary was the following 40 words:
amazing, anxiety, axis, bald, collectively, consequence, consistent, content, conventional, correlated, currently, demographics, disentangle, diverse, divorce, enormously, equation, exception, explosion, fairly, hail, immersed, intrinsically, massive, merely, mind-wandering, occupational, potential, precede, regret, resolve, reveal, slightly, stray, substantially, ubiquitous, unconstrained, uncover, unresolved, vertical
These words were all low-frequency words (Level 4 and above based on the JACET 8000 Word List (JACET, 2003). The participants were asked to provide a Japanese translation of each target word at different stages of the experiment.
Week 1 Mochizuki vocabulary test (PC), Vocabulary pre-test Week 2 Video watching (L1 subtitles, L1 note-taking)
Discussion/summarization activities (L1) Week 3 Video watching (L2 subtitles, L2/bilingual note-taking)
Discussion/summarization activities (L2) Week 4 Video watching (No subtitles, L2/bilingual note-taking)
Discussion/summarization activities (L2), Immediate post-test Week 5 (Other activities) Week 6 Two-week delayed post-test
Scoring of the vocabulary tests was conducted by six trained raters proficient in both English and Japanese. Responses for translation were marked as correct (1 point) or incorrect (0 points).
4 Results and discussion
The results is shown in Tables 3 and 4. While the Vocabulary Level x Test Timing
interaction was not significant, F(2, 32) = .70, p = .503, np2 = .04, the main effects were found to be significant for both Vocabulary Level, F(1, 16) = 6.93, p = .018, np2 = .30; and Test Timing, F(1, 16) = 10.04, p = .006, np2 = .39. Post-hoc Bonferroni multiple comparisons showed a significant increase in vocabulary test scores from the pre-test to the immediate post-test, p = .037, Mdf = 1.33, 95% CI [.07, 2.60]; and from the pre-test to the delayed post- test, p = .018, Mdff = 1.83, 95% CI [.29, 3.38]. However, there was no significant difference between vocabulary test scores from the immediate and delayed post-tests, p = 1.00, Mdiff = .50, 95% CI [-1.22, 2.22].
These results show that incidental vocabulary acquisition following the experimental activities is retained even after a delay of two weeks, irrespective of each participant’s vocabulary size.
With regard to RQ1, viewing this particular TED talk with subtitles was effective, if not large, for incidental vocabulary learning and the learned knowledge was retained in long- term memory. This result was consistent with Smidt and Hegelheimer (2004) and Williams and Thorne (2000). The class activities contributed to the high scores in the immediate and delayed post-tests.
As for RQ2, the results in Tables 3 and 4 show that the effect of incidental vocabulary learning appeared irrespective of whether the learners’ vocabulary size was larger or smaller.
The present study examined the effects of viewing a subtitled speech with note-taking and summary writing on learners’ incidental vocabulary learning.
The results showed that the class activities contributed to a significant, but limited acquisition of new words. Additionally, the vocabulary knowledge learned from the activities was retained for at least two weeks after the study, irrespective of the participants’ vocabulary size.
There are two pedagogical implications worth noting here. First, subtitled videos may be utilized for introducing new words in that they help learners match English words with their meanings unconsciously. Second, post-viewing activities may be effective in enhancing the retention of newly acquired vocabulary.
There are some limitations and suggestions for further research: more analysis is needed to show what kind of words in what scene are easy for learners to learn incidentally.
Many thanks go to Daiki KATO, Yayoi UMEMURA, Eleanor DOWSE, Makoto SAITO, Yoshinobu MORI, Masaya HOSODA, and Kentaro SUZUKI for their tremendous cooperation.
Ahn, M. (2013). The impact of subtitles online video clips on incidental vocabulary learning.
STEM Journal, 14, 135-151. Chiquito, A. B. (1994-1995). Metacognitive learning techniques in the user interface:
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Mizuno, Motoko (Mejiro Kenshin Junior and Senior High School)
Students learn well where there is rapport with the teacher and peer students. Then, if the curriculum becomes suddenly too demanding for both the teacher to complete it and the students to learn all, how can rapport in classroom be achieved?
With Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games just four years away, English Education in secondary schools in Japan is now in its accelerating phase, from knowledge-centered approach to communicative language teaching (CLT). Many schools have made good headway by setting up English courses or classes, which are conducted solely in English. On the other side of the coin, however, considerable amount of time for grammar teaching in the students’ first language (L1) is reduced, whilst most universities in Japan still attach too much importance to reading and translating skills on their entrance exams. Now our concern is that in this period of transition whether the students, especially who are in the middle and lower proficiency level, can respond to the changing needs of language skills without enough assistance in L1.
“Flipped classroom method,” a type of blended learning, can be made best use of in such a circumstance. It allows the students to gain first exposure to new material outside of class, usually via lecture videos online prepared by the teacher, and then use class time to assimilate that knowledge with help of the teacher and peer students (Brame). This teaching model enables the teachers to carefully examine the lesson content, and both the teachers and the students to stay psychologically connected, as the students can repeatedly watch the material online whenever necessary.
In an attempt to build rapport in the limited amount of class time, this study illustrates how the teachers can utilize flipped classroom method for grammar teaching and explores ideas for establishing rapport and positive classroom environment. As a means to measure rapport in class before and after applying the method, observation, questionnaires, and paper- based exam results are employed.
Hirano, Junya (Kumamoto University)
1. Purpose of This Presentation
In 2008, the Ministry of Education (MEXT) in Japan claimed that the acquisition of effective communication skills is the primal goal of English education. This mistakenly guides teachers and scholars to solely pursue communicative English teaching while limiting the importance of grammatical understandings. This presentation proposes to explain the possibility of movies as an effective teaching medium to enhance learners’ grammatical understandings as a foundation of communication skills.
2. The Much Ado about Communication and its Irony
Traditional English education in Japan was notoriously famous for its orthodox memorization-centered teaching style, which gathered a large volume of criticisms. Communication is the new key ground of English education, upon which the reformation of English education is designed. The new curriculum guidelines hold that developing communication skills is the main purpose of English learning and that grammar plays an ancillary element to develop communication skills. Grammar must be taught in a way that learners can utilize it as an effective means for communication. However, this view on the relation between communication skills and grammar often creates confusion among scholars and teachers who tend to treat communication and grammar not as related factors but as a matter of either/or-choice, as if grammar is an obstacle for learners’ developing communicative skills.
In 2014, MEXT published a report, clearly restating communication is the primal goal. It reads: “English education…. should focus on the development of communication skills to convey ideas and feelings in English, rather than grammar and translation.” The point that grammar is a crucial element of communication is nowhere to be found; overwhelmed attention toward communication casts a shadow over the importance of grammar. Grammar appears to be taken less seriously, for a number of instructors even claim that grammatical mistakes, or “hiccups” in communication, must be tolerated as long as learners can convey their ideas and feelings. It seems that much ado about communication-centered English education guides instructors and scholars to pursue the primal goal, while ignoring the other factor, grammar.
Little attention has paid to discover effective ways to integrate grammar teaching into communicative English leaning. The great irony is this: although the criticisms on memorization-centered, drill-based, English learning triggered the genesis of communication-centered English teaching, when it comes to explanations on grammar and vocabulary, teachers cannot do anything but leave learners to swallow and memorize explicit explanations. Simply put, no matter how much learners are encouraged to engage in communication activities, they still have to undergo the mechanistic process of English learning and memorize a large amount of grammatical rules, vocabulary, and common phrases.
3. Grammar Focused Instruction Strikes Back
As Ellis (2006) asserts, the zero grammar approach was only “flirted with, but never took hold” because the acquisition of English ability cannot be achieved without a certain degree of grammatical understandings. For instance, phrasal verbs are one of unique features of modern English communication; however, enough attention has been paid to teaching phrasal verbs, and Japanese learners are able to use only one-third of phrasal verbs that native speakers use. Furthermore, though there are significant different derivational meanings, certain phrasal verbs and single-word verbs are often incorrectly taught as synonymous. Is there an effective way for teachers to employ in order to explain as many phrases as possible to learners without asking them to memorize important phrasal verbs?
Imagine yourself teaching one of the most commonly used phrases in everyday conversation, “Not that I know of.” How can you clearly explain the specific meaning that the particle, “of,” provides in the phrase? How can you explain different derivational meanings between “know,” “know about,” and “know of”? Improving communication skills and conveying ideas as well as feeling “properly” requires learners to gain practical knowledge on these phrasal verbs. As long as grammar instruction is undertaken, detached from communicative English learning experiences, grammatical understandings will hardly become practical knowledge to enhance communication skills.
4. Movies as a Bridge Between Communication and Grammar
As Matsumoto (2014) suggests, movies can be utilized as an effective medium for communicative grammar instruction. Movies are filled with useful conversational phrases and lines. Not only that, just as a small, tiny detail can be an important clue of a plot, a subtle nuance expressed in a phrase can be an important element to describe a character and a story. In many cases, characters deliver lines using different grammatical rules to create delicate shades of meaning. For instance, when teaching conversational phrases to make a request,
such as “Would/Could you ᅭ ？” and “Will/Can you ᅭ ？,” they are simply taught as idiomatic expressions and they deliver different degree of politeness; the former is a more polite way to ask than the latter. As communicative activities, teachers probably tell students to make a series of requests to each other using these expressions. However, the grammatical explanation on the reason why these expressions convey different degrees of politeness will not be explained. Students might increase their pragmatic abilities to use these expressions by repetition without gaining grammatical understandings between would/could and will/can, which can come in handy later when learning different other rules of grammar.
In Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Harry and Uncle Vernon exchange following conversations over an irritating noise that Uncle Vernon thinks Harry’s bird is making.
UNCLE VERNON: I’m warning you, if you can’t control that bloody bird it’ll have to go!
HARRY: But she’s bored! If I could only let out for an hour or two.
If learners have practical knowledge on the difference between would/could and will/can, they will understand different nuances Uncle and Harry make and why Uncle uses “can” and Harry “could.” This sort of practical knowledge can enhance learners’ communicative skills, and there are a number of examples in movies that teachers can use to guide learners to obtain grammatical understandings as a foundation for their communication skills.
Pronko, Michael (Meiji Gakuin University)
This presentation will explore how film adaptations of novels and short stories can be used to heighten student’s comprehension of narrative. However, adaptations are more than a secondary, easier way to grasp story, see culture and hear language. Using adaptations together with written texts creates an intertextual dialogue that produces new insight into both story forms. The dialectic between a film adaptation and written source material becomes a complex interplay of narrative, culture and image.
In many ways, students can comprehend a film more quickly and easily, however at a deeper level, the complex elements of film demand just as much time and effort as a written story. When students contrast the two narratives, they can find more nuanced and subtle aspects of both by examining what is changed, or the same, between the two.
This presentation will explain the concept behind using adaptations, but will also focus on specific techniques, such as outlining and scenic analysis, for creating a productive interactive discourse. Methods and questions for thinking about and discussing film adaptations and source texts will be presented, along with specific examples of short stories, novels and films that work well with this wide-ranging, comparative approach.
Yamaguchi, Michiyo (Kyoto Prefectural University)
Cross-linguistic humor refers to the type of humor produced by using two or more languages. The present paper focuses on the cross-linguistic humor in which English is one of the languages involved, the other being the local language of the community where ELT consists of an essential part of the education system. In such environments, English is a dominant language with global hegemony, but at the same time, locally, it is a minor language with limited occasions to use.
Specifically, this paper discusses the cross-linguistic humor used in Japanese films and how it reflects the ELT situation in Japan, and compares it with the films in other Asian countries such as Korea and India.
Joseph Sung-Yul Park used the concept of cross-linguistic humor to analyze the status of and ideologies concerning English in South Korea in his monograph published in 2009, “The Local Construction of a Global Language: Ideologies of English in South Korea”. Park investigated films and TV programs and one of his findings is that cross-linguistic humor can contribute “the hegemony of English in Korean society by representing Koreans as illegitimate speakers of English” and it “establishes a difference in legitimacy and ownership of English between Koreans and native speakers of English.” (166)
I applied this concept to the analysis of Japanese films directed by Yukihiko Tsutsumi in my 2016 paper, ‘Representing Japanese Speakers of English: Cross-linguistic Humor of Yukihiko Tsutsumi’, in which I discussed how English is used by the native speakers of Japanese for comical effects. “Eigoga Nanda!” [Who’s Afraid of English] (1988), “ ！[ai-ou] (1991), “Ren’ai Shashin” (2003) [Love Collage], “Sushi Oji New York e Iku” [Sushi Prince Goes to New York] (2008) were analyzed to show how cross-linguistic humor produced by the Japanese speakers’ use of English assumes the high status of English in Japanese society and reflects some ambivalent feelings towards the global language.
The present paper develops the finding of my previous paper by including other films such as “Keizoku: Beautiful Dreamer” [Continuation] (2000) and “Darling wa Gaikokujin” [My husband is a foreigner] (2010). It also compares the findings among Japanese films with the findings of Park (2009) concerning Korean films with a special reference to Please “Teach Me English” (2003).
Saed, Theodore (Sonkla Nakarin University) Etches, Sean (Ann and Jinnie Institute)
It is a stated goal of STEM , on its web site, to help the Korean educational system become less wasteful economically, by encouraging Korean English teachers. This then would eliminate the perception the student must study abroad or have an inner circle or native speaker for a teacher. By using movies, it is hypothesized, the Korean teacher can learn to teach conversation, not just listening, with interactive activities as demonstrated at STEM conferences, and in the manuals. Commonly, a closure quiz, acting a scene, making a scene, or discussion would be ways to get this interaction. Another way is used in this paper, a survey , rather lengthy , of student opinions on various aspects of learning English with movies, one given before and one after viewing a classic movie. For these surveys, “Casablanca”, “Singing in the Rain”, “Beauty and the Beast”, and “Lion King “ were among the choices the classes made. The theme of this conference is online versus offline learning. For the off line learning, previous papers which were about student viewing of movies, uses of them, opinions and teacher opinions, and aspects of movies will be considered the offline learning. The survey of Indian students compared to others, acting students in Mumbai, and its connection to the other papers will be a consideration for the off line learning hypothesis and analysis. Student movie reviews compared to online movie reviews will be an example of online learning that can be compared to offline. In general the students preferred romantic comedies the most, and horror movies the least, the rest in the middle, and thought movies the best way to learn English Teachers disagreed.
2. Lesson Plan
Objectives: To interact with students viewing a movie to learn English, using subtitles, pre-viewing and post-viewing quizzes, and acting a scene.
Set-up: Cue up the movie, pull down screen, give students pre-viewing quiz. Discuss movie’s significance, rottentomatoes.com or Movie Search Engine Query reviews and rating, take questions about quiz
Materials: DVD movie, classic or family oriented, romantic comedy, or action, a print out of the dialogue from a scene in the movie
One- Watch movie, two classes
Two- collect pre-viewing quiz, give post-viewing quiz, collect at next class after seeing movie in entirety
Three- Volunteers act the scene reading or memorizing the script, costumes, props, Thai shadow puppets (nong talung), finger puppets and face masks printed from online, or real puppets could be used.
It may not be necessary to go into what type of movie genre is best, as it would differ from teacher to teacher, and class to class. The STEM conference on conversation analysis had a study that showed Korean students preferred romantic comedies, horror the least, action and fantasy in the middle. (Saed, STEM 2011 ) The survey results showed agreement among students in India and Korea that students should have a say in movie choice. Teachers opinion differed, with 89% in the nine to ten strong disagreement range.
The students who study online are working for a living moreso than offline students, so this would make their choice as important as the teachers it could be projected.
Some online TEFL programs suggest that text books are not the best way to teach conversational English, but “ real “ English from movies, newspapers, and magazines are better.
Berglund, Jeff (Kyoto University of Foreign Studies)
Culture is “the software of the mind” (Hofstede, 1997). Communication is “meaning making” (Berglund, 2003). L2 teachers and learners usually focus on language = verbal communication, but more than 90% of communication is nonverbal. Just as languages differ, nonverbal cultural elements also differ. Movies provide a wealth of nonverbal, cultural context for language acquisition.
Culture can be looked at using the metaphor of an onion. The “onion” of culture is layered. The outer layer is the things we can see: artifacts and behaviors. The next layer is the norms that are associated with those artifacts or behaviors. The inner layer is the values that underpin the norms.
Culture is not just something that can be defined at the level of nations. Of course we can refer to “Japanese” culture or “Korean” culture, but if we look at culture as “the software of the mind,” we can see that there are other ways to define culture groups. Gender, age, body ability, religion, etc. are groups that often have their own cultural norms and values (Berglund, 2003). The figure above shows one behavior of women (gender culture) and an accompanying norm and value. But of course there are many women in the world who never wear high heeled shoes and there are men who prefer women who are not small. Every member of a particular culture group does not always have the same artifacts or display the same behaviors, but there are usually norms in any culture group. A norm is “when 70% or more of the people in a certain culture group have, believe, or display that artifact, value, or behavior.
One culture group that is often misunderstood, maligned, and discriminated against is the LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer) community. This is not to say that all lesbians and all gays and all transgender people have exactly the same norms and values. Of course there are individual differences in personality or character that are affected by our membership in multiple culture groups. A gay man is also a member of a national culture, like USAmerican culture, and is raised with the norms of USAmerican society. One of those norms is the “othering” of LGBTQ people. So the gay man probably grows up internalizing negative images of being gay. Transgender people have an even more difficult path to self- acceptance.
The ESL classroom can become a place where language acquisition is supported by a curriculum that help students develop a greater acceptance of cultural diversity. Students who move from Ethnocentrism into Ethnorelativism along the stages of the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity, the DMIS (Bennett, 1993) at the same time show a greater sensitivity to nuances in language. Movies are a great vehicle for challenging the stereotypes that students have of various culture groups. Moving beyond stereotypes to greater understanding leads to a general acceptance of cultural norms and values that are quite different from one’s own. Successful intercultural communication can only take place when not only is a common language used, but a mutual acceptance of different cultural perspectives is at the foundation of the communication.
This workshop will show how movies can help us to challenge our stereotypes of transgender people. The movie is “Transamerica,” (Tucker, 2005). This movie has won countless awards for its excellent depiction of a man transgendering into a woman. What does gender mean? How do our societal stereotypes affect our communication patterns as far as our nonverbal strategies as well as verbal strategies? Movies can be used to open L2 learners to a greater acceptance of cultural difference, and that acceptance of diversity can become a motivating factor for language acquisition. There are great movies to teach us about homeless people (“The Cats of Mirikitani,” Hattendorf, 2006), people with disabilities (“Benny and Joon,” Chechik, 1993) or (“The King’s Speech,” Hooper, 2010), or ethnic minorities such as the Maori in New Zealand (“Whale Rider,” Caro, 2003), the Aborigine in Australia (“Rabbit-Proof Fence,” Noyce, 2002), or Koreans in Japan (“Break Through” = “Pacchigi,” Izutsu, 2005). The more we learn about people who are “different” from us, the more it becomes possible to communicate effectively both verbally and nonverbally.
Online Lifelong Learning: a language course on Portuguese as a foreign on Skype for adults
Loureiro, Maria Jose (ccTICua/Universidade de Aveiro)
The Common European Framework for Digital Competences defines DIG COMP as crucial not only to strengthen human capital but also to strengthen competiveness and employability. These concerns go back to 2006 when digital competences were considered, among eight other, as extremely relevant to lifelong learning (Vuorikari, R. et al, 2016). Competences in communicating in the mother language and in the foreign language, self- cultural awareness and expression, social competences and the ability to learn how to learn are among the remaining competences.
This presentation is connected to lifelong learning and 21st century competences. It aims to describe an online course of Portuguese as a foreign language (PFL), on skype, aimed at a small group of French learners, who live in a city which is geminated to a Portuguese city in the district of Aveiro. There the inhabitants organize themselves so that they can have classes on several contents they are interested in. Learning Portuguese has been present for 4 years, in levels the learners describe as beginner and intermediate. These classes, which were more formal, were delivered by two city inhabitants, both of Portuguese origin or ascendency. However, they had no qualifications in teaching and taught voluntarily. Although the online teacher had no contact with these in loco teachers, the students of this online course, had occasional lessons with them. During these lessons, the students were taught more elementary contents of the language, as the students mentioned they perceived the online course as a way to expand their oral and cultural competences. The students had already attended lessons of Portuguese as a foreign language, so their previous teachers and the students themselves classified their language level as advanced. They were all autonomous when using technology with basic technological competences and despite the age average above 55 years old and the medium standard of education, they had considerable digital competences for their age group. In terms of Distance Learning none of the students had any previous experiences.
The course was organized in weekly sessions of 90 minutes during 7 months. Intercomprehension practices were always present during the course and the participants particularly enjoyed the ideal number of elements of the group (6 elements), the variety of themes developed, the dynamics and the efforts made to correct the language structure and the accent. When it comes to negative aspects, the students mentioned the poor quality of the internet connection, the more demanding sessions, especially those related to verbs or those with themes which were more deeply explored and in which the language level required was more technical or high standard. Some of the students also mentioned the lack of time to dedicate themselves to the course.
The themes and activities developed were about:
i) Politics, one of the students’ interest; there was a small discussion about the Portuguese political crisis; ii) Civilization – there were discussions about the Portuguese way of being were promoted and about concepts such as “saudade” and nostalgia, as well as about emigration and immigration issues. The students analyzed a text from the online newspaper “Publico”. This text also provided reading out loud activities as well as a dictation activity;
iii) Customs and traditions – the issues discussed in this topic had to do with traditional food eaten on Christmas Eve in both countries. The training of oral competences was privileged;
iv) Tourism – students watched videos about the Portuguese provinces and islands; the students trained languages prompts related to hotels and restaurants, through online searches and role playing activities. There was a lesson taught from the Azores; v) Culture – in this topic the theme studied was Music. Two songs were explored: “Playback”, by Carlos Paiao, and “Grandola Vila Morena”, by Jose Afonso. The students solved comprehension exercises and the lyrics were discussed; they solved blank filling exercises, did online searches about the small village in Alentejo and about the author and subsequently shared and discussed the results; vi) Education – the two educational systems were compared; vii) History – the students visualized and discussed a news report about the current Ines de Castro. The students studied the Portuguese revolution of the 25th of April 1974.
Data collection was based on some online registers on Skype; emails; individual reports written in Portuguese; individual reports written in French; final group report written in French; oral recordings of individual statements in Portuguese; direct observation by the teacher/researcher and also on the students’ perceptions conveyed during informal interviews during the last in loco session. All the participants considered the last session as the highlight of the course, as it included guided tours, in Portuguese, to each students’ place of work and to their leisure places. The students reinforced the high potential of online communication.
In conclusion, one must highlight the aspects which most concurred to the success of this course – the use of intercomprehension, the high level of motivation the students had, the cultural richness provided by the researches, the sharing that occurred and also the greater ease the students showed and better levels of fluency. Also, we must mention the fact that the students developed their digital skills and deepened their European awareness, in a moment in which these values are at crisis.
The students have suggested several aspects to be taken into account in future events, such as diversification of communication tools and new strategies to distance learning which will lead to better results when using this learning methodology and which will keep the excellent motivation levels that characterized the interaction throughout the months when the course took place.
Keywords: Lifelong learning; Intercomprehension; PFL; DIG COMP
Araujo e Sa, M. H. (2013). A Intercompreensao em Didatica de Linguas: modulagoes em torno de uma abordagem interacional. Linguarum Arena, 4, 79-106. Disponivel em http://ler.letras.up.pt/uploads/ficheiros/12008.pdf Vuorikari, R., Punie, Y, Carretero Gomez S., Van den Brande, G. (2016). DigComp 2.0: The Digital Competence Framework for Citizens. Update Phase 1: The Conceptual Reference Model. Luxembourg Publication Office of the European Union. EUR 27948 EN. doi:10.2791/11517 Costa, F.A. e Cruz, E., 2016, Projeto LIDIA – Literacia Digital de Adultos, Instituto de
Educagao, Universidade de Lisboa, ISBN 978-989-8753-23-6 Figel, F., 2007, Key Competences for Lifelong Learning – A European Framework.
https://www.erasmusplus.org.uk/file/272/download Gil, H., 2014, Os cidadaos mais idosos (65+ anos) do concelho de Castelo Branco na utilizagao das TIC, e-Saude e e-Governo local, http://hdl.handle.net/10400.11/2463
Kim, Jeong-ryeol (Korea National University of Education)
Media literacy refers to a functional fluency accessing, analyzing, evaluating and creating media messages. Media include radio, television, movie, podcast, blog and other social network services. The structure of media takes a different structural design to fulfill its designed function such as persuasion and disappointment in its text and subtext. The use of multimedia is known to be effective in English education. This paper explores the causing factors of media in creating such positive results and investigates the structural relationship among the factors influencing the effects of English education. The study will investigate the persuasion as an example for English learners to use their media literacy.
Fang, Linda (Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore) Stangl, Anita (Medien LB, Germany) Lee, Yun Joon Jason (Duksung Women’s University, S. Korea), Li, Pek Lin (Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore)
According to MedienLB, an educational movie is a film whose purpose is to educate. Modern educational films are multimedia interactive tools perfectly designed for the use in the classroom. The film is divided into different film sequences. Combined with the use of standard and interactive worksheets and test questions, the film (in the form of a digital school book) becomes a pupil-orientated tool for modern education in the classroom.
As MedienLB produces educational films in various areas such as; media education, technology, chemistry, physics, sports, and many more, it withholds numerous values to language education in classroom. Especially for EFL countries, in this case South Korea, students can benefit from various topics provided from MedienLB. The development of various video materials can provide multiple approaches for students, especially for EFL based students.
Development of education films can transfer into widening opportunities for EFL students. As different from ESL countries, EFL students need multiple exposures to English language. The educational films, especially focused on multiple disciplinary subjects can enhance the learning experience for the students, and also help the teachers develop a deeper meaningful content based classroom.
The session will focus on lessons that incorporate strategies for language development, comprehension of the content and the articulation of questions that generate further learning. This session will suggest teachers design and develop lessons for intermediate to advanced Foreign or Second Language Learners.
Toyokura, Shoko (Kansai University)
For more than 100 years, foreign language pedagogy has focused on monoligualism. However, with the recent change in the academic climate in the 21st century, translation has now been now revisited in EFL learning. The presenter, a researcher of TILT (Translation in Language Teaching), works as a professional translator, including subtitle translation from English into Japanese, and is teaching translation at Japanese universities. Her professional experiences have led her to believe that among all types of translation, subtitle translation in particular provides EFL learners with opportunities to enhance their Metaphorical Competence (MC).
Metaphor was traditionally viewed as a figure of speech that contributed to stylistic flair. However since the publication of Metaphors We Live By (Lakoff & Johnson, 2003), in which the authors claim that “our ordinary conceptual system is fundamentally metaphorical in nature,” this view has changed radically. Now its significance and ubiquity in our communication are widely recognized. Thus MC, the ability to interpret metaphors and use them appropriately holds the key for successful English learning. Many researchers point out that MC is essential for learners to participate in communication with native speakers of English. However, it is difficult to comprehend or produce them for EFL learners with only limited access to English and its culture in their everyday life since the interpretation of metaphor heavily relies on the conceptual information behind the words. Therefore in order to overcome this disadvantage of class room learners, there is a need to get them to focus not only on the forms of word, but also on the conceptual structures associated with these forms.
Metaphor is a problem not only for EFL learners, but also for translators. It is said that metaphor translation is the ultimate test for a translator’s ability. In monolingual communication, metaphors can be understood without a great deal of effort as the speaker and the hearer usually share the same conceptual framework. However, in translation, the process changes from one language to another, involving two conceptual systems. This presents a challenge with translators. They have to mediate the conceptual gap between the source language and the target language. As far as the author observed in her class, translation students (EFL learners) tend to be “word bound” and translate the source text literally into the target text, focusing solely on each word without paying attention to the underlying concepts of the linguistic expressions. As a result, they are often unable to effect an adequate translation.
From this perspective, EFL learners and translation students share the same problem to some extent in that they tend to focus solely on the surface level of the language without accessing its conceptual bases due to a lack of MC. For this reason, the author believes that translation is pedagogically beneficial for the development of MC in EFL learners. In subtitle translation in particular, the constraint of time and space forces them to go beyond the surface of words and explore their conceptual space as they begin to realize that word by word translation will not work. This ultimately leads to the enhancement of their MC.
Based on this hypothesis, the author conducted an observatory study on how Japanese EFL learners developed MC through subtitle translation. The presentation begins with a theoretical account of the relationship between MC and subtitle translation, followed by the explanation of the subtitle translation process and its characteristics. After subtitles produced by the students in her class to several utterances involving metaphorical expressions extracted from a cinematic film are shown, the detailed analysis on the development of Japanese EFL learners is discussed. Then, the presentation is finally concluded by stating the future perspective and possible limitations of this research.
Azuma, M. (2005). Metaphorical Competence in an EFL Context. Tokyo: Toshindo Publishing Co., Ltd.
Cook, G. (2010). Translation in Language Teaching. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Gutt, E.-A. (2000). Translation and Relevance. Manchester, UK: St. Jerome Publishing.
Danesi, M. (2003). Second Language Teaching: A View from the Right Side of the Brain. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Kecskes, I. (2000). Conceptual fluency and the use of situation-bound utterances in L2. Links & Letters 7: 145-161.
Lakoff, G., and Johnson, M. (2003). Metaphors We Live B^. Chicago, Iᄂ: Chicago University Press.
Littlemore, J. (2010). Metaphoric competence in the first and second language: Similarities and differences. In Putz, M. and L. Sicola (eds.), Cognitive Processing in Second Language Acquisition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 295-316.
Luckel-Semoto, Aya (Kyoto University)
In Japan, wide access to Internet resources has caused plagiarism among the student population in third level education to become a serious obstacle to the objective assessment of their academic performance. Among the main reasons for this practice is the students’ lack of awareness of the meaning of this act and of its implications for the dissemination of knowledge in a lawful manner. This situation makes it necessary to establish a record of good practices at undergraduate level that enable students to acquire better habits with regard to academic writing and, in general, all throughout their educational career. In this presentation I will explain a classroom project based on the use of a legal conflict generated in the creation of a movie by Walt Disney Pictures in 2003 as a pedagogical resource to demonstrate the concept of plagiarism. I will be discussing the results of two survey studies which analyze individual essays written by 551 first-year students in Kyoto University registered in an academic writing English course. The research objective was to evaluate the extent to which the in-classroom exemplification and discussion of plagiarism resulted in an improvement of the students’ writing skills. The qualitative analysis of the data provided in the essays showed the positive benefit of using a real life case study from the media in combination with the students’ own work.
Keywords: English academic writing, plagiarism, survey study, third level education, media pedagogical resources
Keem, Serng Erk (Harn Narm University)
This paper deals with creating a new phonetic alphabet system based on the Korean alphabet, Hangeul, which is not appropriately capable of representing foreign phonemes found in the English sound system. A total of 37 phonetic symbols has been created and added to Hangeul so that the Hangeul-based English Pronunciation Symbols(HEPS) to replace the International Phonetic Alphabet(IPA), which has been an only tool for average Korean students of English to acquire the sound system of English. And yet it has been a stumbling block and ignored as a difficult task for both teachers and students to teach, learn, and use. It is obvious that this kind of practice hinders developing listening and speaking skills from beginner levels of English education. As a solution to this, the HEPS will help every Korean learner master the sound system of English, which is a must in learning English as a means of international communication.
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이현복. (1971). 한글음성문자시안. 한글학회 50돌 기념 논문집. 한글학회 최정호. (2006). http://www,donga.com/fbin/output?sfrm=1&n=200606290057 한은영. (2004). 영어발음 한글표기의 오류와 문제점. 학사학위논문. Ausbel. David. (1963). The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Leaning. New York Grune & Stratton.
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Phonetics. New York: Appleton Century Crofts. Brown, H. Douglas. (1994). Teaching by Principles: on Interactive Approach to Language
Pedagogy. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Chomsky, Noam and Morris Halle. (1968). The Sound System of English. Harper & Row Publishers.
Engelmann, Siegfried, Phyllis Haddox, Elaine Bruner. (1983). Teach your Child to Read in
100 Easy Lessons. Simn & Schuster, Inc. Gatenby, E. V. (1965). Conditions for success in language learning. In Harold B. Allen (Eds). Teaching English as a Second Language. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Lukoff, Fred. (1954). An Intensive Course in English. Tong Myung Publishing Co. Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5th ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
O’Neil. Wanye. (1969). The spelling and pronunciation of English. Ne^ College Edition: the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. The Complete Book of Phonics.
Keeler, Alice (California State Univ., Fresno, USA)
The manuscript will be handed out on the presentation day. Conventionally, associations outside Korea, including the ICEM, send their completed manuscripts after the conference. It would be appreciated if you could allow us to follow this procedure in this case as well and send our manuscripts after the proceedings.
Alice Keeler is a Google Certified Teacher, New Media Consortium K12 Ambassador, Microsoft Innovative Educator and LEC Admin & Online and Blended certified. Co-Author along with Libbi Miller of the book “50 Things You Can Do With Google Classroom.” Taught high school math for 14 years. Adjunct Professor of Curriculum, Instruction and Technology at California State University, Fresno. Alice Keeler has developed and taught online K12 courses, as well as the Innovative Educator Advanced Studies Certificate (cue.org/ieasc). She has worked on project teams for Google projects such as YouTube teachers and the Google Play for Education project. She has served on the New Media Consortium Horizon report advisory panel for 2013, 2014, and 2015 (http://goo.gl/iTM15). Bing in the Classroom lesson developer. A believer in the importance of connectivity she founded #coffeeEDU (coffeeEDU.org) and #profchat. Masters in Educational Media Design and Technology. Doctoral student at Boise State University in EdTech with a focus on gamification. Passionate that kids are not failures and using technology to change the way we approach learning and grading. Alice tweets @alicekeeler and blogs at alicekeeler.com.
Tu, Chih-Hsiung (Northern Arizona University) Roberts, Gayle (Cenegenics Institute) Yen, Cherng-Jyh (Old Dominion University) Rodas, Claudia (Northern Arizona University) Harati, Hoda (Northern Arizona University) Sujo-Montes, Laura (Northern Arizona University)
The goal of minimester is to offer students the advantage of completing classes in a shorter time span, And while financial and marketing advantages for institutions are no-doubt involved in the origins of the implementation of the minimester, published research into the theoretical and pedagogical rationale supporting the minimester is ultimately lacking. This study is to examine how self-regulated learning skills may serve as predictors to minimester learning experiences. It concludes that not all SRL skills can predict online minimester learning experiences, but it would be a mistake that SRL skills are not critical to online minimester learning experiences. Different learning contexts require different SRL skills.
This study empirically examined the following research questions: How will each of the six self-regulated learning skills (i.e., goal setting, environment structuring, time management, task strategies, help seeking, & self-evaluation) respectively predict positive perception of online minimester learning experiences in terms of attitude, comingled instructional length, instructional design & instructional content respectively?
Not all SRL skills can predict online minimester learning experiences, but it would be a mistake that SRL skills are not critical to online minimester learning experiences. Different learning contexts (instructional designs and comingled instructional lengths) may require different SRL skills. Educators and administrators should understand the effects of different instructional designs and comingled instructional lengths to offer and to design online minimester instructions. Particularly, since comingled instructional lengths have fairly low score. Future research should examine the online course arrangement and curriculum planning. Research should examine online minimester from instructors’ and administers’ views to have full understanding of the value of online minimester education. Many higher educational institutions are offering Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) with gamification rewarding as digital lifelong learning opportunities in minimester format should examine outcomes to determine if this is the proper format.
Yoshimuta, Satomi (International Christian University)
In our present life, developing media literacy to interpret media is of importance as Masterman maintains that “the media influence us and shape our perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes” (1985). Especially for young people who are more likely to be exposed to new media need the skills to deconstruct the assumptions underlying them to enhance their decision-making ability and the techniques to make meaning of the text.
As a first step to deconstructing and understanding media, referring to the five core concepts and asking the questions supported by them are proposed by Jolls and Wilson (2014). The concepts include “all media messages are ‘constructed,'” “media messages are constructing using a creative language with its own rules.” These core concepts are highly insightful in analyzing the media when the media is not a work of art. However, when the target of analysis is both media and a work of art such as a film or a novel, not only that framework but the analysis that suits those types of media need to be applied. At present, there are not a great number of studies on how these core concepts of media literacy are to be approached and extended in a Japanese university EFL classroom when considering deconstructing movies as media.
This presentation, therefore, will briefly describe the history of media literacy education, then a classroom practice of a commercial analysis in a university writing class and the methodology of analysis and lastly discuss the implications for future research and classroom use.
Masterman, L. (1985). Teaching the media. London: Routledge.
Jolls, T., & Wilson, C. (2014). The core concepts: Fundamental to media literacy yesterday, today and tomorrow. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 6, 68 – 78.
Fujikura, Naoko (Kyoto University of Foreign Studies)
Walt Disney released “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” in 1937, “Cinderella” in 1950, and “Sleeping Beauty” in 1959. A story of two princesses, Anna and Elsa called “Frozen” was a huge success in 2013. In 2015, Kenneth Branagh directed a live-action of a faithful adaption of the “Cinderella” made in 1950. After enduring all the hardships, the princesses are rescued from their horrible state by their handsome princes who fall in love with them, love at first sight, and they get married and live happily ever after. After 65 years from the first Cinderella, little girls still dream to be princess.
Many scholars have pointed out that these stereotypical princesses have negative effect on girls’ gender identity and how they perceive themselves. These princesses all have white skin, beautiful faces and are very thin. In recent years, Disney has created new racially diverse princesses such as Mulan, Pocahontas, and Tiana who are Asian, Native American and African American. However, these racially diverse princesses cannot escape from the gender stereotype. Disney has created a “Disney Princess Line” which includes 13 princesses and the sales of these princess related products is a major revenue for the company. What are the messages these princesses are sending to our children? This presentation tries to examine what kind of problems these princesses pose to little children and how we can use these movies in our classrooms.
Murata, Kimiko (Seinan Jo Gakuin University)
Last year I chose Disney’s Frozen from the Junior Novelization Series as the textbook for an “Introduction to Literature” class for my college students. While reading it, I asked them to watch the movie Frozen in parallel so they could have a deeper understanding of the work.
Disney’s Frozen is said to be based on The Snow Queen by Hans Christian Andersen. So at the beginning I compared Andersen’s The Sno^ Queen and Disney’s Frozen and discovered many similarities and differences and concluded that Frozen、popularity is rooted in the modernity of Disney film.
In The Snow Queen the main character is Gerda and her close friend Kay obtain two pieces of a magic mirror: one in his eye and the other in his heart, which magnified everything ugly and mean. Gerda begins a long adventure to pursue the Snow Queen who has kidnapped Kay. The main message of this story is to clearly teach Christian values: Self- sacrificing love and friendship in repeated references to Christ. In Frozen the ice blast stuck Anna’s head and heart as the mirror splinters injure Kay. After Elsa escaped to the isolated mountain, Anna started a dangerous adventure to follow her sister.
The message of Frozen is also of self-sacrificing love and sisterhood but without obvious references to Christianity. The main sources of success of Frozen is first the creation of the modern character of the snow queen, Elsa. Unlike Andersen’s Snow Queen, Elsa is a sufferer trying hard not to hurt her sister. At the mountain she set herself free and changed into a modern hair style in modern fashionable clothes.
The second source is the elimination of stereotypical Disney characters. The main character, Anna is not a typical girl waiting for her luck to fall upon her. Unlike historical Disney characters, Anna continues to fight in the face of hardship. And her enemy is not a typical villain. On the contrary, the apparently kind prince changed into a cruel, greedy man who tries to kill Elsa and Anna. Even though the animals in previous Disney movies were less characteristic and obedient to men, this time the animal like Sven the reindeer was insistent and straightforward to Kristoff, his master.
Third, the most inevitable element is the creation of Olaf, a snowman. He transcends being a creature with his philosophical and sensible mind. His characteristics are a combination of clownishness and a divine wisdom making this movie exquisitely attractive. These extremely richly expressed and attractive characters are backed by the Disney’s latest film-making technology.
So in my presentation first I will compare Frozen with The S가ow Queen. Later I will focus on the modernity of the Disney Movie, Frozen which brought a record-breaking box-office hit.
Okajima, Yuta (Senshu University)
This research compared the results of two methods for listening task and questionnaires which were taken in two classes. These listening tasks were taken three times and questionnaires were taken twice. Participants are forty six Japanese female college students who major in child caring. They were divided into two classes. One class took the dictation. Students fill in the blanks with correct script, while students are listening to the actor’s speeches in English movies. The other class took another method. In the worksheet of this method, word boundaries were erased from English lines in order to make chunks of quasi- nonwords. Students put slash marks in lines so as to divide the chunks of quasi-nonwords into English words. The results showed there was a fluctuation in the percentage of correct answers of the dictation, while there was an increase in the percentage of correct answers of another method. In addition, students who took the dictation lost their motivation for the listening task slightly, whereas students who took the other method increased their motivation somewhat. In conclusion, the method in which quasi-nonwords were used is useful for English learners to continue their listening task through English movies.
Keywords: Japanese female college students, English movies, word boundaries, quasi- nonwords
Hong, Bobae (Kongju National University) Min, Sujung (Kongju National University)
Disney animations are the world best selling films and used as the most valuable educational material for English education in the countries like Korea, Japan, and China, in particular. It’s because animation is the most user friendly for young language learners and the language used in the animation is the most authentic present day English.
However, Disney is allegedly believed to represent “conservatism” in its series of animation since “Snow White” was produced in 1937, in which female and male were portrayed as a dichotomy of powerful and powerless. That is, female was portrayed as a vulnerable social being who needs the help of male.
This study, therefore, aims to inquire into the ideological framework or structure on which Disney films are based and also examine how the social changes in terms of gender, status, race and ethnicity has been reflected in Disney animation. Based on the analytical framework of critical discourse analysis, this study analyzes “Snow White”, “The Little Mermaid”, “Bambi”, “The Lion King”, “Mulan”, “Frozen”, “Jootopia” and suggests some educational implication.
Anjali Pandey, (1997) Articulating Prejudice: A Linguistic Perspective on Animated Movies,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Cooper, Robert L. (1984) The avoidance of androcentric generics, International Journal of
the Sociology of Language, 50: 5-20 Pauwels, Anne (2000) Women Changing Language. Feminist Language Change in Progress, paper presented at the First International Gender and Language Association Conference, Stanford University, CA, May 2000. Schulz, Muriel (1975) The semantic derogation of women, in Barrie Thorne and Nancy Henley(eds.), Language and Sex: Dominance and Difference, Rowley, MA: Newbury House, pp. 64-73.
Sure and Of Course
Yamamoto, Goro (Hiroshima University)
This study sheds light on the meaning and usage of the synonymous backchannels sure and of course using a corpus of English movies. Since Fries (1952) attempted to sort frequently used English expressions for backchanneling under the category “single free utterance,” a number of previous studies have focused on various expressions to capture the backchannel’s functions and frequency of use in oral communication. Such expressions contain non-lexical items such as oh, uh-huh, and wow, single-lexical items such as good and really, and sentential or phrasal expressions such as I see. Deepening knowledge of backchannels is important in English teaching and learning as Leech and Svartvik (2002, 14) states, “Most of these expressions (backchannels) are commonly used in conversations among native speakers, and it is therefore important for the foreign learner to be familiar with them and be able to use them quickly, and appropriately, in different situations.” Previous studies often proposed their self-coined terminologies to pursue usage and functions of backchannels such as accompaniment signals (Kendon, 1967), backchannel items (Orestrom, 1983), and reactive tokens (Clancy, et. al., 1996), but it is safe to point out that a number of expressions have not been studied exclusively yet. A corpus-based comparative discussion of synonymous backchannels, in particular, has not been conducted in many studies. Keeping this background in mind, this study particularly focuses on usage and functions of sure and of course using a corpus.
Although both sure and of course are used to say “yes,” the descriptions in EFL/ESL dictionaries indicate that sure is used to agree with requests or suggestions whereas of course is used to give permission. Using a corpus of English movies, Movie English Caption Database, and Sketch Engine, this study analyzes the preceding and following utterances of the target expressions and attempts to correctly capture the difference between the two backchannels.
A Look at the Definite Article of English Through Movies
Fujie, Yoshiyuki (Kyoto University of Foreign Studies)
It is far from easy for non-native English speakers to master how to use the articles of English. However, none of the grammatical theories have ever fully succeeded in providing a consistent explanation about the articles, particularly about the definite article “the”. The aim of this presentation is to argue against one traditional theory 一 the “familiarity theory” (Christophersen, 1939; Quirk, 1985; Greenbaum, 1996; Biber, 1999; Carter & McCarthy, 2006) —, and to pose a new one on the definite article, by using several American movies.
In order to achieve the aim, the following procedure is taken. Firstly, Christophersen’s theory is reviewed because it represents all other similar theories. The presenter is to display a considerable number of movie lines which contradict the theory. Secondly, we examine those examples which do not fit the familiarity theory, and hypothesize a new theory in the process. Finally, we inspect the validity of the new theory with those movie lines.
Christophersen and other grammarians advocate that the essential function of the definite article is to represent the hearer’s familiarity with the speaker’s referent. In other words, “the” is a signal that the hearer has some prior knowledge about what the speaker refers to. However, there are many proper utterances which use “the” for referents unfamiliar to the hearer, or which do not employ “the” for referents familiar to the hearer. Therefore, “the” does not primarily mean that the hearer is familiar with a referent of the speaker. Then, what is the essential meaning of “the so-and-so”? It signals that among the elements of a set formed by the speaker, the one and only element fits the description, “so-and-so”, and the speaker is referring to this one. Consequently, the definite article, as a signal, requires the hearer to picture the same set in their mind and pick out the element the speaker is referring to. As a result, the hearer may or may not identify the referent because the element chosen by the speaker is not necessarily fixed as a particular entity. A set formed by the speaker is determined by their subjective value or conventional knowledge. The set-based theory posed in the presentation is more valid and universal than the familiarity theory. This new theory, as a super-ordinate theory, subsumes the familiarity theory.
Affective Domains in Media-Rich Language Programs
Carter, Peter (Kyushu Sangyo University)
In-class media use is widely cited as benefiting language learners in terms of their intercultural communicative competence (Byram, 1997) and many other desirable skill and knowledge-based competencies ranging from goal achievement to world citizenship (Risager, 2007). If we want to maximize the positive influence media use exerts on our learners we need to understand the effects that practices and contexts have on learning outcomes (Chaiklin & Lave, 1996; Kyndt, Dochy, & Cascallar, 2014), a situation best brought about not by detailing the individual lesson plans of instructors, but through an overarching program-level approach (Lemke, et al., 2015) affording a long-term perspective on how student motivation transitions to successful outcomes (Poulsen, 1991). Accessing the conative will to learn is a first step in this process, and one that has formed a base in our study of how students develop in a three year media-rich program of English Communication (Carter et al., 2016). Put simply, the purposes of this presentation are to explore (1) the extent to which learners’ affective positions do or do not change over time, and (2) the link between their ultimate conception of their role in the learning process and satisfaction with their post-graduation outcome. We specifically focus on the affective areas of motivation, engagement, success, and satisfaction, as they relate to English language majors at the tertiary level.
Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Carter, P., Kakimoto, E., Miura, K., & Anderson, C. J. (2016). Two problems for SE/HE research: Contextual solutions from a communicative English program. Journal of the Faculty ofInternational Studies of Culture, Kyushu Sangyo University (63), 79-85. Chaiklin, S., & Lave, J. (1996). Understanding practice: Perspectives on activity and context.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kyndt, E., Dochy, F., & Cascallar, E. (2014). Students’ approaches to learning in higher education: The interplay between context and student. In D. Gijbels, V. Donche, J.T.E. Richardson, and J.D. Vermunt, (Eds.), Learning Patterns in Higher Education (pp. 249-272). New York: Routledge.
Lemke, J., Lecusay, R., Cole, M., & Michalchik, V. (2015). Documenting and assessing
learning in informal and media-rich environments. Massachusetts: MIT Press. Poulsen, H. (1991). Conations. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.
Risager, K. (2007). Language and c사ltw”e pedagogy: From a national to transnational paradigm. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
21st Century Education for University EFL Education: Japanese learners perception of the usability and likeability
Uehara, Suwako (The University of Electro-Communication)
The 21st century education has been defined by the partnership for 21st century education (2007), and skills include life and career skills; learning and innovation skills (critical thinking, communication, collaboration and creativity); and information, media and technology skills. Those that need education are the “digital natives”, a new generation of students who have grown up using computers, videogames and surf the Internet, and in order to reach to the minds of these “digital natives”, the “digital immigrants” (those that had to learn to use technology) instructors should redesign teaching methodology “in the language of the digital natives” (Prensky, 2001). With the need to adapt to 21st Century education, the aim of this study is to focus on the use of technology in education, and in particular, one educational platform, Edmodo. Edmodo is a free online educational social learning network site founded in 2008. Today, there are over 64,000,000 members across over 150 countries, and Edmodo is used in primary and secondary social learning network and can be viewed in 16 languages (Edmodo, 2016). There are various features from creating groups (or classes), posting notes (messages with or without attachments), assignments, quizzes and conducting polls. In this study, three classes with a total of 94 first-years and 30 second-year university learners (N = 124) used Edmodo as a medium to communicate with the instructor. The participants answered an online survey related to the usability and likeability of the social learning network site. The participants were able to access Edmodo on PC’s and on their smartphones. During the semester, the instructor posted pdf versions of PowerPoint documents used during the classes on a weekly basis; sent notices such as assignment reminders, and out-of-class English related activities such as invitations to special seminars the class to the whole class, particular groups in a class, or individuals depending on the content of the message. Individual participants also sent messages involving queries on class assignments, attendance to special seminars, or information related to attendance to the instructor as necessary. The learners also sent messages and data to their peers which related to group assignments. Results showed that the majority of learners found Edmodo to be easy to use as well as being a useable and likeable system for communication between teacher and student. All participants except two were introduced to the educational site through the EFL classes at university, while only two had experienced Edmodo during high school. The- 69 – majority found it was easy to sign up, sign in, and use Edmodo as an educational tool. Few learners used Edmodo on their PC only, whilst a third used the online social network site only on their smart phones, and half used the site on both their PC and smartphones. In this presentation, the basic features of Edmodo and the method of how Edmodo can be used for EFL use is introduced, followed by a description of the research method and results. Finally, recommendations are provided related to how Edmodo could be used in the classroom with a focus on 21st century education.
Edmodo. (2016). About Edmodo. Retrieved from https://www.edmodo.com/about7lan guage=en_GB
Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2007). Framework for 21st Century Learning.
Retrieved on http://www.p21 .org/storage/documents/docs/P21_framework_0116.pdf Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 1. On the horizon, 9(5), 1-6.
Exploring Global Society World Englishes Through Movies to Empower Cross-Cultural Awareness and Global Communication
Kyong-Sook Song (Dongeui University)
The major reason that English has gained the global predominance it has is not only because of the fact that today non-native speakers of English outnumber its native speakers, but also because of the fact that speakers of English have gained economical, political, and socio-cultural powers (Crystal 2003, Graddol 1997, Kachru 1992, McKay 2002, Song 2007, etc.). Studies have claimed that English is an international language not only in a global sense in that English is a language of wider communication between/among individuals from different countries, but also in a local sense in that it is a language of wider communication between/among individuals from one country (Crystal 2003, McKay 2002, Song 2007, etc.)
In the era of globalization, there is not one English any more, but many Englishes, World Englishes. Strevens(1980: 90) points out that English is no longer the language of native speakers, rather it belongs to the world, and new forms of English, born of new countries with new communicative needs, should be accepted into the marvelously flexible and adaptable galaxy of ‘Englishes’. Koreans encounter global citizens of a wide variety of socio-cultural backgrounds, and need to communicate in a wide variety of English. Korean university students consider their proficiency in English as a key to their social moves and career success. This paper discusses the exploring of World Englishes through movies to empower cross-cultural awareness and global communication in Korea, and confirms some implications of critical pedagogy and TEFL in Korea.
Crystal, D. (2003). English as a Global Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Graddol, D. (1997). The Future of English. London: The British Council. Kachru, B. (1992). The Other Tongue: English Accross Cultures. Urbana, Iᄂ: University of Illinois Press.
Song, K. (2007). Understanding Global Society English: World Englishes. Seoul: Hankukmunhwasa.,
Strevens, P. 1980. Teaching English as an International Language: From Practice to Principle. New York/Oxford: Pergamon Press.
The Use of Online English Lessons in Class with Students of Different Levels: Case study at a Japanese University
Kamijo, Miwako (Sagami Women’s University)
This is a case study on the use of ‘on-line English language learning’ for an elective class of students studying in different fields and with different interests. English is an essential study for schooling in Japan and the history goes back over a century. However even after the history and hardships of EFL discussion, many EFL students are still not able to communicate in English and have wide difference of abilities. Japanese are in fact the only language necessary to survive in Japan and this non-English language speaking environment is one of the good reasons why Japanese teachers have a hard time motivating students to study English. The ideal method to have students use English in class may vary among practitioners, but as a university teacher responsible for a group of motivated students in an elective class which is open to the whole university, is to have the students discuss, debate and present. The students’ discussion was found to be very difficult which partially comes from a cultural back ground but the different levels of English was the key issue. An online English service was introduced to class and as a result, all students became active users of English and were dignified in their presentations.
Key words: online English lessons, different levels, Japanese University
Psychodrama and Role Play: Authenticating experience in the foreign language classroom
Figoni, William (Kindai University) Imura, Makoto (Osaka Institute of Technology)
Two major problems for both foreign language teachers and students are: 1) Typical teaching materials are “off-the-shelf,” and thus they are rarely meaningful to real world experiences or to the lives of the learners; 2) Many learners, particularly Japanese students, have difficulties in overcoming shyness when asked to express their feelings. These problems are psychological or cultural, but highly relevant to foreign language acquisition. In order to address these problems, this presentation proposes the use of Psychodramatic methods such as role play, which were developed by J. L. Moreno (1889-1974). J. L. Moreno often goes unnoted when compared to the greats of modern psychology Freud, Jung and Rogers. However, Moreno’s contribution to psychology is profound. In particular, his ideas for dealing with social and psychological issues through action methods such as dialogue, encounter and role play. Today, Psychodrama and role play are common techniques used by psychologists in clinical settings since they can lead to the authentication of experience. Actors and directors also use these techniques to convey emotional content to an audience. Similarly, teachers can show their students how to make the language learning experience more meaningful by introducing the tools of Psychodrama into classroom settings. This presentation will show how methods used in J. L. Moreno’s Psychodrama relate to foreign language teaching and language acquisition, and how the use of film can inspire the use of Psychodrama techniques that involve play, improvisation, experimentation and spontaneity, which in turn can lead to the authentication of experience in the foreign language classroom.
‘It’s Complicated’: Jennifer Lopez and cinematic representations of Latina in American culture
Hikage, Hisayuki (Reitaku University)
As F. R. Aparicio (2004) writes, “forms of expressive culture” including movies are “important sites for exploring bicultural identity, debates on representation, and the cultural agency” of Latinos in the U.S. When we think of Jennifer Lopez (1969-) , one of the most successful Latina stars in America, mainly as an actress (but not exclusively so) we need to consider her on-screen gendered and racial identity and her on-screen and off-screen relation to the discourse of the American Dream (Ovalle, P. P., 2008). In this presentation, I will touch upon Lopez’s career and examine some of her films from Selena (1997) to Maid in Manhattan (2002), focusing on the latter one. As Ovalle explains, the screen depiction of Latinas has been connected with the dancing body and Lopez’s career started as one of “The Flying Girls” in In Living Color. The title role of Selena, which depicts the legendary Tejana singer, was important for Lopez’s acting and music career. Lopez’s on-screen Latina identity is based on “in-between-ness,” in as much as it is different but assimilable. Gradually, “overtly Latina characters/names [disappeared] from her films,” her appearance (skin and hair) changed to conform to “idealized notions of screen beauty” (assimilation) and this transformation brought about her transition from “just a Latina actress” to a mainstream star.
Lopez’s romantic comedy, Maid in Manhattan, develops around the mistaken identity of her character named Marisa, a Latina single mother who works as a maid in a high-class New York hotel. Her passing as a white socialite wearing the Dolce & Gabbana suit and her “transformation” for the Cinderella ball blur the line between Lopez’s character and Lopez as a celebrity. Does Marisa’s upward mobility (promotion to management) endorse the American Dream (social rise for the second generation of immigrants)? Hilary Radner comments on the film that the only way “to emerge out of the invisibility” seems “to become a star.” Isabel Molina-Guzman (2010), juxtaposing this film with another Latina maid film Spanglish (2004), points out that these two films reimagine “millions of Latina laborers” in America as “domestic nurturers of whiteness and white domesticity,” addressing “the increasing anxiety about the U.S. Latina/o population” in America. How should we evaluate Jennifer Lopez in terms of Latina/Latino identity and cultural citizenship in America?
Aparicio, F. R. (2004). U.S. Latino Expressive Cultures. In D. G. Gutierrez (Ed.), The
Columbia History of Latinos in the United States Since I960. (pp. 355-390). New York: Columbia University Press.
Molina-Guzman, I. (2010). Dangerous Curves: Latina Bodies in the Media. New York: New York University Press.
Ovalle, P. P. (2008). Framing Jennifer Lopez: Mobilizing race from the wide shot to the close-up. In D. Bernardi (Ed.), The Persistence of Whiteness: Race and Contemporary Hollywood Cinema. (pp. 165-184). London: Routledge.
Radner, H. (2011). Neo-Feminist Cinema: Girly Films, Chick Flicks and Consumer Culture.
New York: Routledge.
Acceptances of Western Culture in Japanese Music Education
Sato, Keiji (Kyushu University)
In 1872, the Japanese government in the Meiji period promulgated school education policies known as “gakusei”. In these policies, the subject of music was established as
“shokaka” ( a department of shoka). However, at first, this was merely an imitation of Western compulsory music education as there were no music teachers or textbooks in Japan. Later, in October 1879, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture established the music education research institution “Ongaku-Torishirabe-Gakari”. Shuji Izawa, the chief of this institution, brought Luther Whiting Mason to Japan from the United States. Mr. Mason had taught school music education to Mr. Izawa in his school days in Boston. Mr. Izawa published the first music textbook in Japan, the “Shogaku-Shokashu” of 3 volumes, in 1881-1884. It contains 91 Japanese school songs called “shoka”, but almost all of them are based on foreign originals, like German folk songs or English hymns and school songs. Such
Japanese school songs are called “honyaku shoka” (translated school songs).
Although music education in Japanese schools began with the acceptance of Western culture, such songs are not merely imports as they display many changes reflecting the
Japanese context. For instance, in hymns, the word “God” was changed to “tenno” (the
Emperor of Japan ) although the idea of the lyrics remains nearly identical. And in “shoka” that express Japanese beauty, they added “kigo” (Japanese words for the natural seasons) in place of the original foreign lyrics. These changes indicate that “shoka” were not what
E’Hobsbawm calls “The Invention of Tradition”, but rather an inclusion of older Japanese contexts reflected in the “shoka”. Torazo Tamura, who established colloquial “shoka”, practiced integrated curricula stemming from the core curriculum method of Herbartianism in his textbooks on “shoka”.
Such “acceptances and changes” abound in the modernization of Japan. A project team of Japanese researchers at Kyushu University call this the “processing of wisdom”. This study
considers the technique of the Protestant formation of hymns, “contrafactum”, as an origin of “honyaku shoka”. How did “contrafactum” become accepted in Japan in the Meiji period? This dissertation analyzes and examines this question through the lens of American musical education. Bearing the “processing of wisdom” in mind, this study examines the acceptance of Western culture in Japanese “shoka” in the Meiji period and the influence that the types of “processing of wisdom” has had on Japanese schools and society.”
My Introduction to Teaching English through Movies
Foster, Julian (Fukuoka College of Health Sciences)
A vast resource of material to use in teaching ESL or EFL can be found in movies, as well as TV, in fact all visual electronic media. Teaching methods using movies are of course influenced by many factors. These include the setting, the content itself, curriculum objectives and English proficiency of the students. At all times, I search through movies, looking for students’ trouble spots such as speech patterns and pronunciation problems as well as cultural references. My approach is based on functionality and practicality: using material which is culturally relevant and appealing to students and tailoring it to reinforce and build on communicative competence.
Effects of Learner and Teacher Beliefs on EFL Learning Strategies: Cultural and situational influences
Pak, Hubert H.
(Kongju National University)
As learner beliefs derive from a variety of sources, including the learner’s cultural beliefs about language learning instilled in them, it is essential to understand learners pre-learning style according to their own culture and educational culture in order to identify learner strategies for implementing appropriate language instructions. There are many researches showing that cognition and reasoning styles differ across cultures and learning habits. The present study represents a preliminary effort to empirically examine the effects of learner and teacher beliefs on EFL learning strategies, and then an attempt is made to explore cultural and situational influences on learner and teacher beliefs. The result revealed that the experimental group (sharing same learning strategies with that of teachers’) improved much more than the group (having mismatched learning strategies with that of teachers’), with the implication that cultural influences have a significantly higher effect than situational influences on learners’ foreign language learning strategies.
An Effective Way of Teaching Military Terms in ESP Course: Using the movie Band of Brothers
Yang, Sung-Woo Kim, Eun-Young Jung, Hanki
(Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon)
As the necessity for English use is growing in various and specific fields, more ESP- related courses are being offered at higher education fields (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998). Military English is an ESP-based and CBI-based academic course that Korea Army Academy at Yeong-Cheon (KAAY) provides for the purpose of teaching students (cadets) military knowledge and related English vocabularies and expressions (military terms). Given the fact that all cadets will be an army officer after graduation, the academic achievement in Military English course is a critical factor to influence the future of cadets. According to the recent research on the perception of Military English course, the most noticeable difficulty that the cadets have experienced in the course resulted from the unfamiliarity with military terms (Sung, Yang, & Jung, 2016). This unfamiliarity has caused the problems with understanding of the course content. Even though the terms are explained in cadets’ native language, it is still hard to understand the meaning of the terms clearly because the meaning of the terms is still unfamiliar in the native language. Therefore, it is necessary to devise the effective way to teach the terms. The purpose of this presentation is to suggest a teaching method feasible for ESP-based Military English course by using movies as a supplementary material. As Larsen-Freeman (2000) states, the use of the additional materials in CBI-based courses enhances students’ understanding of subject matter. For better understanding of unfamiliar military terms, movie scenes are employed. The way to use movie scenes is as follows: first, the key military terms and their meanings are explained in cadets’ native language. Then, the movie scene with the terms is presented to cadets in order to visualize and conceptualize the meaning of the words. Through watching the movie scenes, the meanings of the terms are visually understood and reinforced with the scene. Also, the meanings of the reading content with unfamiliar military words are clarified by the scene. As a result, the target terms can be long-term memorized. The use of movies as a supplementary material for language teaching triggers meaningful learning by integrating the target words and the movie scene which makes the terms understandable.
Dudley-Evans, T., & St. John, M. J. (1998). Developments in English for specific purposes.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York:
Oxford University Press. Sung, K., Yang, S., & Jung, H. (2016). A Study on Military Cadets’ Curricular Satisfaction, Their Needs for ESP, and the Future Use of English. Modern English Education, 77(1), 89-116.
Short and Long Term Effects of Forum Based Written Corrective Feedback on the Students’ Writing Accuracy
Park, Chong Won Pukyong National University
In the field of written corrective feedback (WCF) research, it has long been argued whether modes of WCF affect students’ writing development, exclusively on writing accuracy. However, until recently, the results of WCF are somewhat contradicting. These dissatisfactory findings guided the researcher to explore this issue further when the forum is provided from on-line and consistent feedback is provided from off-line. Three groups of students, an on and off line supported group (N=25), an off-line only supported group (N=27), and a control group (N=26) participated in the study. Students were exposed to pretest, post-test, and a delayed post-test with a short and long term period of investigation. The results of this study can be expected that the on and off line supported group will outperform those of the off-line only supported, or the control group. In addition, in terms of the interaction between feedback modes and time, the on and off line group will outperform these two other groups both short and long term period of time. If the results of the study turn out to support the researcher’s conjecture, implications for the future research will be galore. Above all, the results of this study can offer an alternative approach in proving the effectiveness of on-line forum to the students’ writing development exclusively focusing on accuracy. In the end, the researcher is eager to address the issues of why WCF is beneficial or detrimental for a certain group of students and how one can chase acquisition path of a specific learner and the groups participated in this study.
Designing MOOCs: Lessons Learned
Aydin, Cengiz Hakan Anadolu University, Turkey
The massive open online courses, or MOOCs, has been one of the major discussion points in the field of higher education since their raise in 2010. MOOCs are courses designed for large numbers of participants, that can be accessed by anyone anywhere as long as they have an internet connection, are open to everyone without entry qualifications, and offer a full/complete course experience online for free (OpenupEd, 2014). There are advocates and sceptics of MOOCs. Those supporters believe in that MOOCs are disruptive technologies and will change the way we have been using to teach and manage higher education (e.g. Barber, Donnelly, & Rizvi, 2013) while sceptics consider the MOOCs movement as a fads (e.g. Finkle & Masters, 2014; Majhanovich, 2015). One way or another MOOCs are still there and grasp the attention of policy makers, administrators, academicians, learners, employers, publishers, and others in all around the world, including Turkey.
In Turkey, the MOOC movement is still in infancy stage. Especially the supply part is quite weak. There are only a few universities and couple for-profit initiatives that provide MOOCs. Anadolu University and Erzurum Ataturk University have already a history in open and distance learning and based-on their experiences they are the major MOOC providers in the country. Both launched their MOOC platforms in late 2014 and offered first courses in 2015. Anadolu University, for example, has started with 8 courses mainly in social sciences and humanities and more than 2000 learners in its custom developed MOOC platform called as AKADEMA. However, after the first round, Anadolu University decided to change its platform and gave a break until June 2016. Currently, AKADEMA offers 9 courses in Turkish and 2 in English to all who would like to take via its Blackboard-based platform (Aydin, 2016).
This paper intends to reveals the lessons learnt during the design, development, implementation and evaluation phases of the AKADEMA courses. As the designer and manager of AKADEMA, the presenter will be focusing on the following major lessons:
• Course length must be between 2 to 8 week longs
• Access to course materials (trialability) increases the retention
• Total 25-30 hours of work load for learners is optimal
• Even self-paced courses need some level of teacher presence
• Guided study is more preferred then self-study or intensive
interaction based study.
• Proctored online exams are more preferred.
• Course materials must be accessed after the course
This presentation might be beneficial for those who are interested in designing effective, efficient, engaging and enduring MOOCs.
Finkle, T.A. & Masters, E. (2014). Do MOOCs Pose a threat to higher education. Research in
Higher Education Journal, 26, 1-10. Majhanovich, S. (2015). Neo-liberalism takes hold: Educational reform in the brave new
faculty of education. Educational Practice and Theory, 37(2), 5-23. OpenupEd (2014). Definition massive open online courses (MOOCs). Retrieved from http://www.openuped.eu/images/docs/Definition_Massive_Open_Online_Courses.pdf
Bringing Minecraft into English Classroom
Son, Jisun (Eulji Middle School)
Computer games and smart phone games have swept through our teenager students as we know these days. Some worry that these games basically take away students from their academic pursuit, distracting them depriving themselves of energy to concentrate and focus on their study. While this view may stand true to some extent, there are computer games that promise infinite possibilities for class. One of them is “Minecraft”, which appears to be nothing more than stacking a block after a block. However, with this simple and yet highly addictive feature of ‘stacking blocks’ to create your own world has Minecraft grown to be one of the most beloved games in the world. It is just so ‘cool’ to see your own creations into which you invested hours and hours of planning and implementing the work.
How does ‘Minecraft’ have anything promising for us, English teachers? It has huge possibilities for the class. When most of our textbooks are chosen and selected by the school and we are given those materials to teach, teachers as well as students are less motivated and excited about the materials because they are ‘bestowed’ on them, regardless of their opinions. In the textbook, we have some stories of some people living in a distant country and a story from the past with oblivious lessons for students which may fall short of reaching them and positively changing them. Minecraft can change that situation. With it, you are the master of creation with which you can imagine, visualize, and capture the story of the boy living away in a distant land and how he overcomes his difficulty. You can render your own interpretation of the text and present it to your students. Because Minecraft does allow the room for creativity and wild imagination, students are motivated and excited to read the story and understand it, in a hope to create their own version of the story. In their attempts to understand and visualize the story, the content of the lesson becomes internalized and students can achieve the learning objectives. This is the power of Minecraft and we should a due attention to it.
Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of language learning and teaching (5th ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Fillmore, C. (1979). On fluency. In C. Fillmore, D. Kempler, & W. Wang (Eds.), Individual differences in language ability and language behavior (pp. 85-101). New York: Academic Press.
Momilani MinecraftEdu: The impact of game-based learning on student motivation and engagement
Asselstine, Shane (Momilani Elementary School) Leong, Peter (University of Hawaii-Manoa)
Minecraft, a first-person sandbox video game, is based in a virtual world modeled on the real world. In Minecraft, players can build and craft everyday objects using blocks. Gamers can also play this game just like other games – mining, fighting monsters, surviving, and gaining strength. Minecraft as a learning platform is just now starting to build a lot of momentum as more teachers seek ways to integrate this game into the classroom to engage and motivate students in the lessons. Many educators are using the different features of Minecraft to teach different academic subjects (Short, 2012).
The purpose of the research study is to investigate the impact of Minecraft game-based learning on students’ motivation and engagement. At Momilani Elementary School, students participate in Minecraft curriculum-based lessons. Quantitative and qualitative data about student motivation and engagement are analyzed and discussed. Finally, implications for game-based learning are discussed.
Workshop: Pedagogic Design Guidelines, as used for Instructional TV programs for English Language Learners in Turkey
(Educational Media Production Training)
During 30 months in 2010-2013, 56 Instructional TV programmes for an English Language Learning course were scripted in the UK and produced in Turkey. Each TV programme has three drama clips, each one followed by a review of key phrases, then by a section inviting viewers to practice speaking those phrases. The rationale for this structure and for individual techniques within it accords with a comprehensive set of design principles for educational video (Koumi, 2013). These principles are recommended for teaching institutions that produce video for use in their English Language teaching. In addition the principles would serve as useful criteria for teachers of English who choose off the shelf videos to use in their English Language lessons – indeed most of the principles apply to any lesson plan, whether or not it includes the use of video.
The term Instructional in the workshop’s title is used deliberately to distinguish the TV programmes from the general interest ‘authentic’ videos that are often used by classroom teachers as a resource, e.g. movies or documentary programmes in English (Ferlazzo and Hull, 2012). In contrast, the instructional videos described in this workshop are self-study teaching/learning videos, in which the presenters operate as teachers of English Language, who recap and explain the English usage in a series of dramas. The TV programmes are part of a self-study teaching/learning package, the Touchstone Course, and the dramas are specially tailored to be source material for the Touchstone curriculum.
The 60-minute workshop will start with a 30-minute presentation which will include playing 13 video clips from 5 of the TV programmes.
For the final 30 minutes, participants will be divided into small groups to discuss (with the presenter’s involvement) the relative merits of using:
1. general interest videos in the classroom, compared with Instructional videos of the type shown in the above presentation.
2. so-called ‘authentic’ videos, compared with videos of scripted dramas that are tailored to the language level of the students, as in the above presentation.
Koumi, J. (2013). Construction of 56 instructional TV programmes for English language learners in Turkey, Educational Media International 50(4), 341-354. Ferlazzo, L; Hull, K (2012). The ESL / ELL Teacher’s Survival Guide: Ready-to-Use Strategies, Tools, and Activities for Teaching English Language Learners of AH Levels, Jossey-Bass, San Fransisco.
Tips to Flip Your Classroom: Start Small
(Hwagok Nursing and Business High School)
It’s not easy to define what Flipped Learning is, and it’s because teachers who want to flip their class are encouraged to design their own lessons considering their teaching context through trials and errors. Still, numerous flipped classrooms have something in common; Technology is used to deliver asynchronous direct instruction with the intention of freeing up class time for student-centered learning, and the direct instruction is moved from the public space to the private space.
This is for the teachers who want to flip their class, but are overwhelmed by their lack of technological skills, or the lack of understanding what to consider for successful flipping. Videos are the most preferred forms of direct instructions as flip materials, and making video instructions is possible, for example, by simply using cell phones or capturing the computer screens with the help of a certain software. What matters is how the flip materials are used in flipped learning. There are various models of a flipped classroom; Traditional flip is the first and most prominent flip, by which a video instruction is followed by in-class activities. But this is criticized in that this is not dynamic or engaging enough to revolutionize education. So more dynamic and complex model of flips such as ‘Explore-Flip-Apply’, ‘Flip-Mastery’, or ‘Peer Instruction Flip’ have been designed and developed, which overcome the linear process of flipping and stimulate discovery learning by using the video for learners to check their understanding or further study.
There are a lot to consider to make videos more engaging. Most of all, teachers should concern interactive aspect of students’ learning while they are watching the video. The passive mode of learning while watching video can be overcome by asking comprehension checking questions – and Google Form can be an effective tool to stimulate student reflection. Videos don’t have to be perfect with fancy effects. If teachers would rather enjoy themselves through the whole process of flipping classroom, inviting students and other teachers to making videos, they could find more opportunities for self-reflection as well as for creating better relationships with students. For that, it’s okay to start small
Bergmann, Jonathan. (2015. January 24). Flipped-Learning Toolkit: Getting Everybody On Board. Retrieved from http://jonbergmann.com/flipped-learning-toolkit-getting- everybody-board
Cockrum, Troy. (2013). Flipping Your English Class to Reach AH Learners: Strategies and Lesson Plans. New York, NY: An Eye On Education Book.
Flipped Learning Network (2014, March 12). What is Flipped Learning?. Retrieved from http://www.flippedlearning.org/cms/lib07/VA01923112/Centricity/Domain/46/FLIP_ handout_FNL_Web.pdf
Factors Explaining Instructor Integrated Use of Mobile Devices
Pan, Cheng-Chang (Nova Southeastern University) Sivo, Stephen (University of Central Florida) Graham, Jeffrey (The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley)
The current phase of the survey study is intended to investigate college students’ perception of instructor integrated use of mobile technology (IIT) and its relationship with students’ affinity for technology (AFF) and class modes, using two years’ data (2013 and 2015).
Secondary data collected in collaboration with EDUCAUSE ECAR in 2013 and 2015 were analyzed using SPSS 21. T-test for independent samples and multiple regression analyses were performed. The two years’ data contained more than 2,700 responses of undergraduate students at a state university in South Texas, U.S.A.
A multiple regression was run to predict IIT from AFF, class mode (Non Web vs. Web), and year (2013 vs. 2015). These variables statistically significantly predicted IIT, F(3, 2202) = 93.354, p < .001, R2 = .113, suggesting the regression model is a good fit to the data. All three variables added statistically significantly to the prediction, p < .001. The multiple regression model is represented as: IIT = .550*AFF – .472*Mode + .248*Year – 497.516
A t-test for independent samples analysis was performed to check whether there is a significant difference in mean scores of eight variables, including sub-variables of IIT and AFF, between year of 2013 and year of 2015. Results suggested that there was a significant mean difference in IIT between year of 2013 (M= 2.824, SD=1.688) and year of 2015 (M=3.251, SD=1.422); t(1776.992)= -6.728, p < .001 and also a statistically significant mean difference in AFF between year of 2013 (M=3.761, SD=.978) and year of 2015 (M=3.667, SD=.95) was found, t(2677)=2.297, p = .022.
College students’ technology affinity, class modality, and year seemed useful in predicting their perception of instructor integrated use of mobile technology during class. Of all, the more affinity for technology, the higher demand for the instructional use of mobile technology. When compared to students in 2013, those in 2015 also reported a higher demand for instructors’ integrated use of mobile devices in class. Though, their level of attraction for technology to get involved in courses using technology or connected to campus news and fellow students appeared lower than their counterparts.
Attitudes and Experiences on the Application of Web 2.0 to Facilitate English Language Learning
Myers, Shane (Kyung-Hee University)
Learning language has no borders as the internet and web 2.0 has became popular. With the development of Twitter, Facebook, Youtube and other social networking services, Students nowadays are not limited to only in-classroom learning(Wang, Vasquez 2010). However, educators and students lack the awareness and importance of web 2.0 resources when it comes to language learning (Bennet, Maton, Kervin, 2008).
This study aims to understand whether or not being a digital native in the context of South Korea helps assist language learning, and using that knowledge to see if educators should create curriculums that benefit present day students comfortability with technology. Digital natives are those who were born into the age of the Internet, digital natives are also claimed to possess sophisticated of and skills with digital technology and have particular learning styles that differ from earlier generations of students (Prensky, 2001). If we as educators do not adapt to web 2.0 and internet technologies to assist language learning, we are taking for granted how our students use the internet for all types of learning. To put it simply we need to understand the mind and culture of the student who is using web resources and web 2.0 and use that practice to utilize new applications of web 2.0 technology to boost language learning and give the student a greater advantage.
The poster session will present the interviews of students’ experiences of language learning through web 2.0 and technologies that are present on the Internet. Students will also be interviewed to reflect on their language learning experiences, this includes individual motivations to learn a language both in the traditional form and possible web 2.0 based language learning. The poster session will also include the voice of Korean students who are learning English and how the discourse will function within English education of Korea
Bennett, S., Maton, K., & Kervin, L. (2008). The ‘digital natives’ debate: A critical review of the evidence. British journal of educational technology, 39(5), 775-786. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants part 1. On the horizon, 9(5), 1-6. Wang, S., & Vasquez, C. (2012). Web 2.0 and second language learning: What does the research tell us?. Calico Journal, 29(3), 412-430.
Dismantling White Supremacist Patriarchy, One Teacher at a Time: Anti-racist, anti-sexist, anti-ableist pedagogy for pre-service teachers
Staples, Jeanine (The Pennsylvania State University)
As some of the state sanctioned violence and murders of Black and Brown people are currently being storied for the public, many people are asking what they can do to actively stop racial and gender injustice. We all have to find our own path and attend to it seriously. There are several ways to affect activist-level change. One can participate in marches to voice rage and draw attention to social inequities. One can lobby for revisions in legislation and public policies to shift culture. Or, one might speak out by writing against media depictions to expose, and work to eliminate, racial and gender biases. Direct instruction is another way to do activism. It is one I pursue vigorously, and specifically, through an undergraduate course I designed and implement at Penn State. In this presentation, I show how I developed an anti-racist, anti-sexist, anti-ableist teacher education course for predominantly white pre-service teachers poised to teach diverse students in an urban contexts.
The Future of Education How Machine Learning will Inform Human Learning
Rochelle, Jonathan (Google)
For decades – or longer – our school systems emphasized teaching facts, skills and methods for solving problems which have previously been solved and perfected. This has been especially true in mathematics and sciences. In other areas of study, of coure, there has been more subjective models and assessment metrics – as in creative writing and the arts.
When humans began pursuing artificial intelligence in computing, we of course applied a similar model – giving the machines the benefit of the answers to follow given solution paths to provide answers. Expert systems was the appropriate term for these models. But in time, it was understood that in order for machines to be more effective at solving real problems, they would have to become better at actual learning. The evolution of machine learning began to show strong results in recent years as the value of data – which can also be thought of as “prior experience” – was recognized and used more heavily. In the past 30 years, machine learning has leaped forward in terms of success and value.
In human learning, the majority of teaching models still leans on facts, algorithms and memorizing prior learned facts. We recognize more now than ever before the value of experiential learning, but we have not yet made it the core of our institutional education models.
This talk will focus on this dichotomy between machine learning and human learning and the characteristics of machine learning which will likely begin to take hold in our human education systems to provide a more sustainable education for our next generations. We will see education focus on experiencing learning and learning to learn rather than simply being shown how to solve problems which have already been solved.
Connecting the Dots with Language, Culture and Media: What does the geek culture tell us?
Lee, Jason YunJoon (Duksung Women’s University)
Language cannot be separated from culture (Mahadi & Jafari, 2012), thus learning involve cultural understanding. However, culture is too broad, big and widespread to be documented or taught within a semester long class. How will we teach culture to ESL students?
Movies and TV series share somewhat of the destined culture. It may not withhold all the cultural information, but each media has a cultural value imbedded within the motion picture. Scholars (Lee, 2015; Rho, 2015; Seo, 2015), already studied the benefits of using media to enhance the English language learning experience for students. Although research has shown the benefits of the using media in ESL education, researchers has expressed their difficulties in teaching culture.
This keynote session will observe the technological terms of several movies. Technological terms (Seo, 2015), are known as referenced terminologies, but they are specific cultural notes of each media. These terminologies provide movies with identity and meanings that viewers can embrace. Knowing and understanding how these terminologies work will help the students to increase their language learning process. It will help the students to connect the dots with language, culture and media. This keynote will emphasize on the geek culture of U.S, the superheroes, starwars and many others. It is known that geek is a social ineptitude and obsessive devotion to some pursuit (Auerback, n.d). He continues to argue that geek culture is about passion and caring of their favorite TV shows and characters. As the Hollywood’s sci-fi TV shows and movies developed, it also became a huge part of our everyday social conversation. In other words, geek culture can be considered as important as any other part of culture that we experience everyday. Therefore, several scenes of popular sci-fi movies and superhero based TV shows will be analyzed and presented in this keynote session to share the importance and value of the cultural education.
Auerbach, D. (n.d.). Let’s Decide on a Better Definition of “Geek Culture，，. Retrieved April 13, 2016, from http://www.slate.com/articles/techno logy/bitwise/2 014/09/geek_culture_toward_a_better_definition.html
Lee, J. H. (2015). On the possibility of teaching communication strategies: Based on language development. STEM Journal, 16(3), 87-108.
Mahadi, T. & Jafari, S. (2012) Language and Culture. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 17(2), 230-235. Rho, Y. (2015). Movies, Speech Communities: A Study Focused on Technical Terms from The Blacklist. STEM Journal, 16(2), 67-85. Seo, J. (2015).
Integration of Language and Content Revisited Based on the TV Series NCIS. STEM Journal, 16(2), 103-121.
West, Mark (UNESCO, USA)
The manuscript will be handed out on the presentation day. Conventionally, associations outside Korea, including the ICEM, send their completed manuscripts after the conference. It would be appreciated if you could allow us to follow this procedure in this case as well and send our manuscripts after the proceedings.
Mark West is an associate project officer in the section for Teacher Development and Education Sector Policy at UNESCO Paris. He has authored several papers on mobile learning and helps oversee the UNESCO-Nokia field project in Nigeria. He is currently studying efforts to leverage mobile devices for reading, particularly in the context of developing countries. Prior to joining UNESCO, Mr. West served as a Fulbright fellow in Azerbaijan and worked as a classroom teacher and teacher trainer. He is a graduate of Stanford University.
DISCOVERe: A Fresno State University tablet initiative
Tracz, Susan Benavides, Otto Lam, Sarah (California State University Fresno)
No one can deny that the numbers of tablets in use is staggering. While sales declined last year, 206.8 million units were shipped out in 2015 (World wide, 2016), and many of these tablets were purchased by students. Clarke and Savanaes (2014) document usage of tablets at all levels of education from primary grades through the university. But it is not so much a matter of what learning devices are used but how they are used, and so the study of effective teaching practices with tablets at colleges and universities is relevant and timely. In their study of usage of devices in university classrooms, Rossing, Miller, Cecil, and Stamper (2012) found that faculty reactions to using tablets for university instruction fell into five themes: access and availability of information, sharing and collaboration, novelty, learning styles, and convenience and usability. Wang, Wiesemes, and Gibbons, (2012) found that college learning doesn’t take place just by giving students a “fancy” device, but is related to technical immediacy, flexibility, sharing and getting feedback, and always takes place in a context. Clarke and Svanaes (2014) note that tablet instructors not only need to be trained, but they also need “pedagogical discussions, recommendations and sharing of apps and teaching activities and, importantly, enough time to become familiar with the technology” (p. 11).
This study will comprehensively describe the DISCOVERe program at Fresno State and examine its effects on course redesign and utilization of tablets, changes in teaching methods, and faculty and student reactions. The research questions for this study are: 1. What are the characteristics of the DISCOVERe program? 2. How does it change teaching and learning? And 3. What are faculty and students reactions to this program?
The purpose of the DISCOVERe Tablet Initiative at Fresno State is to redesign college courses to be engaging and challenging for students, to decrease the digital divide by training faculty to utilize tablets in these classes, and to support students financially to purchase tablets. The goals of DISCOVERe are to “effectively engage the complex, evolving learning styles of today’s students; develop student technology skills to use in careers; and reduce cost of materials for students” (http://fresnostate.edu/president/disc overe/about/fast- facts.html, April 28, 2016). This is being accomplished by incentivizing faculty to learn how to use tablets in their classes and to provide students with monetary stipend to buy the tablet of their choice. Faculty attend a 5 week training session and a full week intensive Summer Institute, and they receive a $2,000 stipend for participating. The university also offers face-to-face support with technology to students, faculty and the community in general at the DISCOVER3 Hub. To date, over 50 tablet courses have been offered, over 30 faculty and 1200 students participate in DISCOVERe, and 150 students and 5,000 students are anticipated by the end of the 2016-17 academic year.
The pre-session training lasts five weeks, and is presented in 2 hour interactive classes. In Week 1, faculty members are introduced to Lynda.com and GoogleDocs. In Week 2, the focus is on using mobile devices to assist with lecture-style presentations. Apps and programs presented include Explain Everything, Google Slides, and Apple Keynote. Week 3 covers giving quizzes and exams with Socrative and Kahoot. The tablet’s camera and microphone capabilities are also presented. Week 4 deals with accessibility issues and ways tablets facilitate collaborative learning. Week 5 covers Pathbrite (ePortfolios) and allows faculty time to make their presentations.
DISCOVERe faculty are required to attend the Summer Institute which is an 8 am to 4 pm week long training session. During the Summer Institute, instructors have intensive practice in using apps which are appropriate for their classes and using tablets in actual classroom environments. They engage in the process of redesigning their courses while getting feedback from trainers and other faculty members. The focus of the activities is to gain experience in how to effective apply the knowledge they have gained about apps and other tablet functions to the classes they teach. The deliverable from the Summer Institute is a redesigned syllabus for a course which will be taught during the following academic year.
Support groups for faculty, called Faculty Learning Communities (FLCs), are organized for those who wish to continue discussions and share ideas with other faculty about tablet use, pedagogy, apps, classroom design, student reactions, and other topics. These groups meet monthly during the academic year. They are run by instructors with more tablet experience and expertise, and supported by DISCOVERe staff.
The design for this qualitative research is a case study, which is the examination of a “bounded integrated system with working parts” (Glesne, 2011, p. 22). McMillian and Schumacher (2006) also state that “case refers to an in-depth analysis of a phenomenon (p. 321). For this paper the case is the DISCOVERe program at California State University, Fresno.
A typical case sampling strategy is used in this study (McMillian & Schumacher, 2006). The participants for this program are faculty members in the Kremen School of Education and Human Develop who went through the DISCOVERe program and taught at least one tablet class. For the purpose of this study, an interview protocol was developed; however, the interviewer does go off protocol with additional probes to gather further information. Interviews are recorded and transcribed. The constant comparative method of data analysis is used, and reliability is established with triangulation and member checking.
So far three interviews have been conducted, but many additional interviews will be conducted and all results will be reported in the final paper. Initial findings indicate that faculty enroll in the program with a wide range of skills levels; are trained in the basics of how to use the device, are exposed to many apps to take notes, display data, administer quizzes and other assessments; and are shown how to take photographs and make movies. Changes in the courses involve being more collaborative in instruction and assignments and showing students how to use tablets instead of only modeling those devices.
Teacher’s Perceptions of the Hour of Code and Fourth Grade Students’ Perceptions
O’Neal, Renee (Sam Houston State Univ., USA), Wilson, Tara (Sam Houston State Univ., USA)
January 2015-Present Adjunct Professor for Sam Houston State University
July 2005-Present Principal, San Jacinto Elementary Conroe Independent School District
June 2001-June 2005 Assistant Principal, Ben Milam Elementary Conroe Independent School District
2010-present Early childhood education adjunct professor for Sam Houston State Online, hybrid, and traditional
From Konnichiwa to Aloha: A collaborative video project
Ho, Curtis (University of Hawaii at Manoa) Kimura, Bert (University of Hawaii at Manoa) Kimura, Mary (Kansai University) Kubota, Kenichi (Kansai University)
The primary purpose of this presentation is to share and discuss best practices in conducting cross-cultural projects virtually through use of emerging technology such as Skype, Facebook, and web-based video. Overcoming language, culture and time differences pose additional challenges to coordinating a virtual collaborative project. The presentation will focus on a class project between students from two universities. 17 US and 14 Japanese university graduate students, both in the Educational Technology field, were engaged in a project as part of their graduate course assignment, which required them to collaborate on a short web-based video that shares how a particular ICT is used in their country. Lessons learned about building a virtual community of practice through social media will be discussed and implications for pedagogical strategies will be shared.
Despite the increasing number of studies investigating Virtual Communities of Practice (VCoPs), very few were undertaken in a cross-cultural setting in higher education. By observing graduate students’ socialization and learning in the virtual communities, this project aimed at understanding the process of the emergence and evolution of the VCoP in a cross-cultural setting in a higher education context. Various data was gathered through analyses of students’ e-mail correspondence, Facebook and/or Skype communication log, reflective journals, a survey questionnaire for students, and interviews with students.
Seventeen American and 14 Japanese university graduate students who study in the Educational Technology field were engaged in a project as part of their graduate course assignment, which required them to collaborate on a short web-based video that shares how a particular ICT is used in their country. Students were divided into seven groups and asked to communicate with their counterparts using a variety of online communication tools such as e-mail, Skype and FaceBook (FB) group wall.
The data indicated that due to their different lifestyles and the time-zone difference, finding the time to communicate was the biggest challenge for both American and Japanese graduate students. Nevertheless, the students adopted various different strategies for effective communication based on group resources available and all seven groups achieved the initial project objective successfully.
Though the previous literature showed that the difficulties with technologies generally inhibit participation in VCoPs and thus negatively influence a VCoP performance (Guldberg & Mackness, 2009), our data indicated that the Japanese members’ English language proficiency as well as satisfaction with the levels of interactions with other group members were two important factors influencing their satisfaction.
Finally, based on the data, requiring preliminary assignments for team building and setting clear structure and guideline in the project were shown to be the two crucial conditions that need to be in place for meaningful VCoP to flourish in a cross-cultural setting in higher education
Ardichvili, A., Page, V, & Wentling, T. (2003). Motivation and barriers to participation in virtual knowledge-sharing communities of practice. Journal of Knowledge Management, 7(1), 64-77.
Bourhis, A., Dube, L. & Jacob, R. (2005). The impact of structuring characteristics on the launching of virtual communities of practice. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 18(2), 145-166.
Bourhis, A., & Dube, L. (2010). ‘Structuring spontaneity’: investigating the impact of management practices on the success of virtual communities of practice. Journal of Information Science, 36(2), 175-193.
Guldberg, K., & Mackness, J. (2009). Foundations of communities of practice: enablers and barriers to participation. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25(6), 528-538.
Henri, F., & Pudelko, B. (2003). Understanding and analyzing activity and learning in virtual communities. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19(4), 474-487.
Hildreth, P., Kimble, C. & Wright, P. (2000). Communities of practice in the distributed international environment. Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(1), 27-38.
Kishi, M., Konno, T., & Kubota, K. (in press). Designing a Learning Environment for Nurturing Cross-Cultural Collaboration with the Internet: A Viewpoint from the Theory of “Community of Practice.” Tabunka-kankei gaku, 7, 105-122.
Kishi, M., & Kubota, K. (2009). Media wo katsuyou shita kooryuu Gakushuu ga ataeru eikyoo – Seinen kaigai kyouryokutaiin tono meeru kookan wo jireini [Impact of Collaborative Learning Using the Media – A case of e-mail correspondence with overseas cooperation volunteers]. Journal of Japan Association for Education Media Study. 15(2), 1-13.
Kubota, M., & Kishi, M. (2008). Kaigai tono kooryuu gakushuu no tenkai [Future on Collaborative Learning in Cross-cultural Setting]. In T. Mizugoshi & K. Kubota (Eds.), DesigningITC education (pp. 235-254). Tokyo: Nihon Bunkyoo Syuppan.
Lave, Jean & Wenger, Etienne. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge. New York : Cambridge University Press.
Tanaka, H. (2000). On Factors Promoting International Exchange Projects Using Multimedia Communication Technologies. Proceedings of the sixth Joint Conference on Educational Technology (pp. 95-98). Naruto: Tokushima, Japan.
Tsuji, T., Nishimura, S., & Nojima, E. (2007). A Situated Approach to English Learning in Distance Colaborative Course which Connect Japanese Students and American students. Journal of Japan Association for Education Media Study. 30(4), 397-407.
Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Speech Speed Rates and Listener Hearing Problems in Movies & ATC Communications
Klinger, Walter (University of Shiga Prefecture)
NITTA Haruhiko, OKAZAKI Hironobu and Walter KLINGER over the past several years have been measuring how fast people talk and how well non-native speakers of English (NNSE) can hear what is being said at different speech speeds.
Using more than 10,000 sentences from 14 movies and TV shows, we calculated a median Articulation Rate (AR) of 5.1 syllables per second (sps). We also calculated an AR of 2.9 sps in a children’s story, 3.2 sps in VOA Special English, and 4.7 sps in VOA and CNN news. We determined that 18.7% of a typical movie scenario is spoken at up to 4 sps, 48.3% at up to 5 sps, 77.2% to 6 sps, 93.5% to 7 sps, and 99.2% at up to 8 sps.
We found that 31 Japanese NNSE subjects with an average TOEIC® score of 923.3 who listened to 60 sentences from TV shows made errors in hearing words at a “Missed Word Rate” (MWR) of 4.2% at 4 sps, 12.6% at 5 sps, 21.2% at 6 sps, 32.7% at 7 sps (e.g., “It was at the front door when I got home. Somebody sent it to us.”), and just over 40% at 8 sps (e.g., “Do you really not know where I’m going with this?”). These errors happened even after listening to the sentences as many as 11 times. The highest MWR for 31 native speaker of English (NSE) subjects was 3.3% at 8 sps, and even those few errors we supposed came from being unfamiliar with the context.
To determine how much of a complete movie people could theoretically understand, given opportunities for repeated listening and given that there is no unknown vocabulary, we calculated a Word Recognition Ratio (WRR), the complementary idea of the MWR, of 85.1% for the NNSE and 99.4% for the NSE. Other researchers have said that at least 95% of words need to be known for reasonable comprehension, so we suggest that 85% is not enough for good comprehension.
We calculated a median speech rate of 4.5 sps in an official English language proficiency certification test for Japanese pilots, while we found a much higher 6.1 sps in 2,184 communications by NSE air traffic controllers (ATCO). We found that 33 Japanese NNSE subjects (24 pilots and 9 ATCO) had great difficulty in hearing NSE ATCO speech, even in unremarkable phrases like “American seventy six,” “two fifty till advised,” and “twelve twenty six.”
We are presently looking at identifying where errors occur in fast speech, i.e., what words and phrases are particularly difficult to catch, and experimenting with ways to improve listening at high rates of speech.
Mobile Applications in Language Teaching
Csaba, Komlo, (Eszterhazy Karoly University, Eger, Hungary)
According to the Ethnologue: Languages of the World (19th Edition, 2016) there are 7097 living languages and 95% of the languages are spoken by just 6% of all people (Austin and Sallabank, 2011). Unfortunately at least half of the world’s living languages won’t be exist if they are not transmitted to the next generation (Austin and Sallabank, 2011), therefore new tools and methods are needed in language teaching and learning.
The popularity of mobile devices (laptops, tablets, smartphones) is growing incredibly fast in the field of education. This phenomenon is not surprising, as these new realisations of computer have several beneficial characteristics, to mention for example their ultraportability, can be controlled by gestures and countless applications can be downloaded to them, and the list of applications is also aiming to support several area of learning, including – of course – language learning. During our research we set up a classification system, that categorizes the different language learning applications. The categories are based on the aspects of area and methods of normative grammar of spoken and written english language.
Austin, P.K., Sallabank J. (2011): The Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages, ISBN: 9780521882156, Cambridge University Press
The Effect of Listening Comprehension through the Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Learning
Lee, Yu-hwa (Keimyung University)
This study aimed at investigating the effect of listening comprehension as well as vocabulary learning by computer-assisted language learning (CALL). Researchers have claimed that CALL is one of the most effective ways in SLA. The purpose of the study is twofold. The first goal is to examine how multimedia affects the learners’ vocabulary. The second one is to examine how vocabulary learning exposed multimedia affects the learners’ listening proficiency level as well as students’ satisfaction in class. In this study, 10 participants who are six graders of elementary school participated in this experiment. Through 2-week lessons with multimedia and 2-week lessons without multimedia, the result, comparing pre-test with post-test, revealed a relatively relationship not only between the vocabulary learning and multimedia but also between the listening comprehension and vocabulary learning and class satisfaction through multimedia. 2-week lessons exposed multimedia had better vocabulary acquisition and listening comprehension ability. The more the learners know vocabulary through CALL, the more they increase their listening ability and class satisfaction. This positive effect of CALL needs to be considered in the light of complex variables between lesson texts and learners’ environment.
How do Korean Teachers Think Mobile Learning in Teaching and Learning?
Yun, Seongchul (Korea National University of Education)
Zhang, Hui (Yanbian University) Cui, Xiangzhe (Yanbian University) Baek , Youngkyun (Boise State University)
This study’s aims are to determine teachers’ perception on mobile and to find out whether their perception towards mobile learning differs or not in terms of their gender, school level, teaching experience and subjects they are teaching. This study will provide answers to the following questions.
How is the perception towards mobile learning among Korean teachers?
Does their perception towards mobile learning differ significantly according to their gender?
Does their perception towards mobile learning differ significantly according to according to their school levels?
The participants in this study consist of 140 teachers at elementary and secondary schools in South Korea. The Mobile Learning Perception Scale (MLPS) developed by Uzunboylu and Ozdamli (2011) was used in this study. Korean teachers’ perception towards mobile learning is in low level as in Turkey. Their perceptions are below the median in all three dimensions. However, among three dimensions, the Forms of Mobile learning Application and Tools’ Sufficient Adequacy of Communication (FMA & TSAC) dimension shows the highest, while Aim-Mobile Technologies Fit (A-MTF) dimension is the lowest. That means teachers are more likely to admit that communications between teachers and students as well as among students are facilitated by means of mobile learning tools. They think that mobile learning system increases the quality of teaching. Female teachers show higher perception than male teachers in all three dimensions. Especially, female teachers perceive much higher in the Forms of Mobile learning Application and Tools’ Sufficient Adequacy of Communication than male teachers. Even though female teachers’ perception is higher than male teachers in Korea. This is not the case of Turkey. Turkish teachers’ perceptions were not different depending on their gender (Serin, 2012).
Secondary school teachers’ perception on the Forms of Mobile learning Application and Tools’ Sufficient Adequacy of Communication (FMA & TSAC) dimension is significantly higher than elementary school teachers. In the overall perception, secondary teachers are higher than elementary teachers. This implies that secondary teachers are positive about the effectiveness of mobile learning applications for communication. They perceive more highly that mobile learning is needed in teaching and learning than elementary school teachers. But this difference is not significant. So secondary teachers are likely to put more focus on the forms of mobile learning application and tools’ sufficient adequacy of communication than elementary teachers. There were no studies from the others’ countries available on the differences between mobile learning perception of elementary and secondary school teachers. But they did some research which concentrated on pre-service teachers. Generally, the pre- service teachers showed a high and positive willingness on the game based learning and integrating mobile games in their future profession. However, there are still some barriers make them feel not confident in managing their class with the use of mobile tools so that they are in a low readiness (Guleroglu, 2015).
Mobile learning is relatively new field in research and exploration by many researchers around the world. It offers a way of learning new techniques to improve the mastery of knowledge in society (Nawi, Hamzah & Abdul Rahim, 2015), especially for teachers and students. This is because teachers’ perception towards mobile learning could be an initiating drive for this new medium to exert its power to enhance learning achievements of student in as well as outside of classrooms. Next step for the research in this field would be how teachers’ perception forces mobile devices’ use in classroom and how they will improve teaching and learning in terms of students’ achievements.
Guleroglu, M. (2015). Pre-service teachers’ beliefs, experiences and perceptions on mobile games (Master ‘s thesis). Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
Nawi, A., Hamzah, M. I., & Abdul Rahim, A. A. (2015). Teachers acceptance of mobile learning for teaching and learning in Islamic education: A preliminary study. Distance Education-TOJDE, 16(1), 184-192.
Serin, O. (2012). Mobile learning perceptions of the prospective teachers (Turkish Replybic of Northern Cyprus Sampling). The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 11(3), 222-233.
Uzunboylu, H., & Ozdamli, F. (2011). Teacher perception for mobile learning: scale development and teachers’ perceptions. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27, 544-556.
A Survey of How Performance Assessment in English is Being Conducted in High Schools in Korea
Park, Tae-Jun, (Korea Institute for Curriculum & Evaluation)
This study aimed to explore how performance assessment in English language arts is being implemented in high schools in Korea and how it is being perceived by both English teachers and their students.
For the purpose of this study, a comprehensive survey was conducted among high school English teachers and high school sophomores in Korea. In total, 310 English teachers and 284 students participated in the present study. The results of this study revealed that assessing speaking, in particular, is seriously underrepresented in English performance assessment currently being conducted in most high schools in Korea. Another noteworthy point is that indirect assessment of speaking (e.g., written discourse completion tasks) as opposed to direct assessment of speaking (e.g., oral interviews or presentations) turned out to be a preferred method of assessing speaking ability among high school teachers in Korea. This indicates that many English teachers still have difficulty implementing English speaking performance assessment in high schools. In addition, this study revealed that more than 40% of surveyed high school English teachers in Korea have never received any training on how to implement performance assessment in school settings. Therefore, these issues need to be urgently addressed by the Ministry of Education in Korea.
The Effects of an Internet-Based English Speaking Performance Assessment System on Korean EFL Students’ Speaking Ability
(Korea Institute for Curriculum & Evaluation)
This study examines the effectiveness of an Internet-based English speaking performance assessment system (IESPA) developed especially for Korean high school students and teachers. The main parts of IESPA are made of a study section, a testing administration section and a testing-item bank. The testing-item bank consists of a variety of speaking types with 210 questions. To lessen teachers’ grading workload, grading rubric with selective criteria were also provided. It is mainly accessible for students and teachers from anywhere anytime through mobile devices such as Smartphone and Tablets. Classroom observation, post surveys and interviews were carried out with over 1500 high school students and teachers. The results indicated more than 80% were satisfied with a ubiquitous study section, high quality testing items and native speakers’ sample answers of IESPA. Finally, school cases of IESPA and pedagogical implications for teachers and educational stakeholders are discussed.
What Is A Key Player in Difficulty of Items?
Kim, Jun-Shik Min, Hoky Park, Yonghyo
(Korea Institute for Curriculum and Evaluation)
As the new criterion-referenced CSAT (College Scholastic Ability Test) will be implemented in 2017, the stability of the test has become an issue: how to maintain item difficulty at the same level across different administrations each year. This presentation aims to report to the result of a pilot study which intends to identify the characteristics that affect difficulty of CSAT English items. The CSAT English items were rated by 19 highly- experienced item developers regarding the characteristics that were presumed to affect item difficulty. These include topic familiarity, passage abstractness, distractor attractiveness, and the number of clues in the passage along with surface features such as length, the number of words, syntactic complexity, and etc. Results of multiple-regression analyses indicate that, in general, item difficulty is predicted by passage abstractness, the number of words per sentence, distractor attractiveness, and the number of words. The results from item modules were different, however. As for Main Idea Module, passage abstractness, distractor attractiveness, and the number of clues were the key variables; as for Supporting Idea Module the number of words per sentence; as for Interaction Module topic familiarity; as for Complex Module the number of words per sentence; and lastly as for Indirect Writing Module passage abstractness, distractor attractiveness, and the number of words per sentence. Based on the findings, the ways to keep CSAT English items at the particular level of difficulty will be explored.
Effects of Songs in an EFL Classroom
Kim, Hye Jeong (Kookmin University)
This study aims to consider what teachers should teach with songs and what are the effects of songs in an EFL classroom. This study considers word combinations and the linguistic forms that they constitute. Additionally, the reason why word combinations are so important in learning a second language will be emphasized. When singing a song, one needs to think about its advantages. Any song has a melody that can foster a learner’s interest. Songs can be helpful in making it easier to approach language learning and memorize word combinations. When considering the language people use in daily life, do people speak Korean, English, or any other language by using grammatical rules or do they tend to repeat and employ frequently used words? People normally use memorized daily expressions rather than grammatically correct ones. Studies show that 70% of adult native speakers use formulaic language (Altenberg, 1990). Wray and Perkins (2000) assert that people repeatedly tend to use memorized formulas and patterns when speaking.
Many scholars consider word combinations as chunks, prefabricated patterns, or formulaic expressions. The more students memorize word combinations, the easier they can master four skills in terms of language learning. Students need to learn word combinations and internalize them for subsequent effective use in a conversation. There are two kinds of word combinations: collocations and formulaic sequences. Collocation is “the habitual association of a word in a language with other particular words in sentences” (Robins, 2000, p. 64). Wallace (1982) insists that “to know a word in a target language may mean the ability to use it with the words it correctly goes with, i.e., in the correct collocation… (p. 27).” Collocation has a linguistic function, while formulaic sequences have a social function. For example, the phrase, how are you? functions as a greeting in maintaining a social relationship.
Teachers should teach songs in such a way. They need to select songs which are likely to arouse students’ interests and implicitly emphasize word combinations with a melody. This study suggests a way of teaching formulaic sequences and collocations by using songs in an EFL classroom. Furthermore, it reassures that word combinations can be applied to every learning material such as movies, dramas, and English poems.
Altenberg, B. (1990). Speech as linear composition. In G. Caie, K. Haastrup, A. L. Jakobsen, J. E. Nielsen, J. Sevaldsen, H. Specht, and A. Zettersten (Eds.), Proceedings from the Fourth Nordic Conference for English Studies, Vol. 1 (pp. 133-143). University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Robins, R. H. (2000). General linguistics (Ed.4). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
Wallace, M. J. (1982). Teaching vocabulary. London: Heinemann Educational Books.
Wray, A., & Perkins, R. M. (2000). The functions of formulaic language: An integrated model. Language & Communication, 20, 1-28.
Memorization of Expressions from a Documentary Based on the Interdependence of Episodic and Semantic Memory
Rho, Yoon-Ah (Mokwon University)
Memory is a fundamental mental process and learning can be defined as a process for acquiring memory (Okano, Hirano, & Balaban, 2000). It is agreed that memory plays a crucial role in all types of learning including language learning. Therefore, one of the language teachers’ roles is to suggest appropriate learning activities to enhance a learner’s memory and language ability. In this study, a way to help students memorize expressions from a documentary using the concepts of semantic memory and episodic memory is suggested.
According to Tulving’s (1972) influential theory, semantic memory is necessary for the use of language and it organizes the knowledge a person possesses about words and other meaning and referents. On the other hand, episodic memory deals with information about temporally dated episodes or events, and the temporal-spatial relations among these events. In other words, semantic memory has been perfected as a result of learning concepts, vocabulary, facts, and academic skills, whereas episodic memory results from the important things that have occurred in people’s lives such as weddings, embarrassing moments, breakups, and so on (Difference between episodic and semantic memory 2015).
Traditionally, these two types of memory are considered to be separate and operate independently. However, more recently, evidence has been found that these two forms of memory are interdependent (Greenberg & Verfaellie, 2010). Based on this idea, both semantic and episodic memories affect each other and facilitate the effective addition and retrieval of information. Thus, I use the interdependency of the two types of memory to explore an effective way to help students memorize the expressions in movies.
The documentary is not a common genre used in the classroom because the content and language are considered to be relatively difficult. Still, it offers good educational material to learn new knowledge and academic language. Bernard (2010) asserted that documentaries bring viewers into new worlds and experiences through the presentation of factual information about real people, places, and events (p. 1). The feature of documentaries is that they contain a great deal of semantic information about the world for learners to learn. That means learners can take advantage of learning both English and information about a specific and specialized field.
However, too much semantic information appearing in a documentary can cause difficulty in memorizing it all. In order to make the information and the language easier to memorize, linking semantic information to episodic information is suggested here. It is assumed that linking semantic information to episodic information helps learners to memorize language efficiently. For this, four college students watched the TV documentary, Ancient Aliens, then figured out the facts they had learned and discussed them with other students. They talked about their personal impression of each fact. Through this process, they put their own opinions and experiences, that is, episodic information, into the facts (semantic information)they found. According to the results of the recall tests, we can conclude that this activity can be a good way to memorize language and information.
Bernard, C. S. (2010). Documentary storytelling: Creative nonfiction on screen. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.
Difference between episodic and semantic memory. (2015, July 14). Retrieved from
http://theydiffer.com/difference-between-episodic-and-semantic-memory Green, L. D., & Verfaellie, M. (2010). Interdependence of episodic and semantic memory:
Evidence from neuropsychology. JInt Neuropsychol Soc, 16(5), 748-753. Okano, H., Hirano, T., & Balaba피 E. (2000). Learning and memory. PNAS, 97(23).
Suggestion for Managing Vocabulary Lists Using Multimedia
Im, Mijin (Kookmin University)
You don’t need to make a special effort to emphasize the importance of vocabulary in foreign/second language learning. Teachers and students should have interest in how to organize and manage vocabulary. According to the traditional way, they write the L2 vocabulary items on one side of a page and the L1 translation on the other side. The problem with this is the vocabulary lists are usually thrown away after some time. Considering that the role of vocabulary lists is to have vocabulary stored in long term memory by regular revision, throwing them away means students effectively give up learning the L2. Chun and Plass (1996) showed an easy way to recall vocabulary using pictures and videos. Al- Seghayer (2001) presented the results of research on improving memory utilizing pictures and videos. This presentation, however, suggests how to manage vocabulary lists with affection. The purpose is to get students to actively manage vocabulary lists and voluntarily look at them often and thereby learn the words and phrases. This study was conducted with 5 university students managing vocabulary lists. It also discusses the pros and cons of vocabulary list management.
Al-Seghayer, K. (2001). The effect of multimedia annotation modes on L2 vocabulary acquisition: A comparative study. Language Learning & Technology, 5, 202-232. Retrieved from http://llt.msu.edu/vol5num1/alseghayer/default.html Chun, D. M., & Plass, J. L. (1996). Effects of multimedia annotations on vocabulary acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 80(2), 183-198
Why Animations in Enhancing L2 Vocabulary?
Lee, Ji-Hyun Kookmin University
Vocabulary is essential to the learning and teaching of a foreign language as it offers learners the path to a variety of forms of communication. The question is how to teach vocabulary in a way that engages the students and promote long-term retention for retrieval for future communication. Movies may be a valuable source of audio or written input in the EFL context. Teaching with movies “increases speed and enhances retention of vocabulary when words occur in a variety of contexts such as animated images and images supported by text” (Moeller, Ketsman, & Masmaliyeva, 2009, p. 2). Research indicates that viewers can incidentally learn L2 vocabulary through watching movies and TV dramas with subtitles. Watching and being immersed into the movies’ stories can lead to incidental learning. According to the levels of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972; Craik & Tulving, 1975), deeper levels (semantic level) of processing make more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of processing. Therefore effective vocabulary learning will occur when the students have higher chances to engage with vocabulary. That is, the more attention the words receive, the higher are the chances of retaining the words in long term memory. Movies provide overall contexts of the main theme showing various episodes and characters, which gives students opportunities to use them in a semantic way such as discussing the characters and episodes and reflecting on the content. Animated movies and cartoons, in particular, present appropriate content for younger learners. The role of teachers is to have the students soak into the movies and enjoy them while balancing the meaning and form of the vocabulary.
Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory
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Star Trek and Schopenhauer’s Simulacre Ontology: Star Trek X: Nemesis
Lee, Geon-Geun (Chosun University)
Schopenhauer’s ontology is concluded to be against teleology, materialism, dialectics, and most of all denies the metaphysics of reason, i.e., the absolute spirit. Also, the Star Trek films of the original and next generation are found to contain the issues of ontology by treating Spock’s logicality and Data’s non-human personality. However, the two characters function as mirrors that show Kirk’s and Picard’s humanism. For a critical example, Picard explains dead Data to B4, “I don’t know if all this has made any sense. I wanted you to know what kind of man he was. In his quest to be more like us …he helped us to see what it means to be human.” Lastly, Schopenhauer would nod in agreement with the captain’s words, “[Data’s] wonder, his curiosity about every facet of human nature …allowed all of us to see the best parts of ourselves. He evolved. He embraced change because he always wanted to be better than he was.” In conclusion, Schopenhauer’s will-oriented ontology has a lot of things to say about Nemesis, positive.
Teaching Movies to Improve English Language Skills & Intercultural Knowledge
Park, Mae-Ran (Pukyong National University)
Movies are a great means for authenticity (by presenting real conversational English – current, contemporary, colloquial expressions) which may enable to facilitate input and output opportunities for EFL college students’ listening and speaking skills, and for cultural understanding (by showing how English speaking people live – values, customs, clothing, food, and interactions). They can also be good for improving these students’ motivation because movies tend to provide them with a variety of themes, events, characters, music in context, vivid visual aid and interest. Most importantly, they do not pose much difficulty!
The purpose of this presentation is to examine whether or not teaching English movies can help college students improve their English language skills and intercultural knowledge. The participants were 43 undergraduate students who took the researcher’s course during the spring semester of 2016. The instruments utilized were the pre- and post- questionnaire surveys.
The findings from the study showed that the participants chose the course because they were interested in studying movies in English and they were satisfied with the contents of the course. They also felt that the kinds of activities they did during the semester helped improve their language skills and understanding of the target culture. The results support other studies conducted in Asia. The pedagogical implication for the current study seems to be that instructors should carefully design the course to meet the needs for EFL college students and motivate their willingness to go beyond what the course can offer to them.
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Martin, M., & Jaen, M. (2009). Teaching conversation through films: A comparison of
conversational features and collocations in the BNC and a micro-corpus of movies. The International Journal of Learning, 16(7), 445-458. Shi, Xi-cyun, & Chen, Meng-jie. (2015). The influence of English movies on English
listening teaching in college. Sino-English Teaching, 12(11), 822-826. Shim, Rosa Jinyoung. (2001). Teaching English through movies: How to do it the
communicative way. STEM, 2(2), 129-154. Xue, Jiao, & Pan, Qi. (2012). The effects of film appreciation on improving the students’ intercultural communication competence. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(8), 1741-1745.
The Impact of Shakespeare Quotation: How to teach English through The Man without a Face (1993)
Koizumi, Yuto (Waseda University)
This paper explores the way in which students learn English through a particular type of modern film that has a variety of learning layers, from acquiring vocabulary and grammar to enhancing insight into the power of film’s narrative. Focusing on such advantages of using films for English learning, this paper ultimately offers a discussion of students’ treatment of literary intertextuality presented in the film. Given that films are a type of art form with a particular narrative style that combines the director’s choreography, the writer’s screenplay, and the actors’ method of performance, English learners will have the opportunity to appreciate the English language based on narrative style or the narrative based on the English language. In the case of my introduction of some films in English class, the learning process can be broadly divided into several stages, including reading the movie script, listening to the characters in some scenes, shadowing for speaking practice. In learning English based on particular scenes, the screenplay inspires the students to become interested in the narrative itself. Given the questions about character and plot or more fundamental questions such as “what is the punch line?” for instance, students may start to notice the value of literature analysis. Expanding cultural/intellectual knowledge behind a scene inspires the students to focus on the psychological background of western arts and allusions from classic literature/film/painting/philosophy. Most of us would accept that the rotation—in more than one direction—of these stages works effectively to interest students through the interconnection of language and culture.
The dynamism of The Man without a Face (dir. Mel Gibson, 1993) lies in the advantage that fruitfully includes the three stages introduced above. In addition to the appropriate level of authentic English in several scenes that cover a fair amount of vocabulary and grammar, the film tells us much about rich sources of narrative such as the “teacher student relationship” and “intergenerational friendship.” Directing the way in which the two isolated characters develop their mutual feelings of respect and friendship, the director Mel Gibson at a certain stage of the story reveals the subtext behind his storytelling. Delicately managing the scene in which former teacher Justin McLeod (Gibson) teaches English to a boy, Chuck Norstadt (Nick Stahl), with some of Shakespeare’s plays, Gibson as the film’s director attempts to explain his characterization of Mr. McLeod as a combined, modernized version of Shakespeare’s most controversial early modern characters: Antonio and Shylock in The Merchant of Venice. It is, then, informative to see how Gibson attempts to address the notion of the important subtext; that is, the film’s culmination as a metaphor of the witch-hunt and injustice that the two Venetian Shakespeare characters are crucially involved in throughout the play. Taking the example of my teaching handouts featuring critical key scenes in The Man without a Face, this paper thus pursues a creative approach to enhancing not only language acquisition but also English learners’ motivation to study essential English culture such as Shakespeare’s writing. All of these factors will make it clear that a modern film such as The Man without a Face, which is neither a Shakespeare film adaptation nor a loose adapted production based on the Bard’s works, can motivate students to get involved in the depth of English language by quoting Shakespeare’s lines intensely and presenting the modern-day Antonio/Shylock, created and performed in London more than 400 years ago.
Using Films to Teach Theology in the EAP Classroom
Kim, Kitai (Hannam University)
This study examines how films can be used to improve reading comprehension skills to teach theology in the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) classroom. Theological or religious studies texts often contain conceptually dense prose that is difficult for students to understand. As such, this study contends that films can assist students comprehend and visualize reformed doctrines of grace as reflected in the Five Points of Calvinism (Total Depravity, Unconditional Election, Limited Atonement, Irresistible Grace, and the Perseverance of the Saints) and the Five Solas of the Reformation (Sola Scriptura, Sola Fide, Sola Gratia, Solus Christus, and Soli Deo Gloria) that are used as the theological foundations in a general elective course titled Faith and Film. The study presents methods of selecting and using films to teach each of the doctrines in order to help students analyze what is theological sound or heretical. The study concludes that the use of films is a viable and effective means to help students understand and visualize Biblical concepts and how Biblical doctrines can be used to analyze contemporary cultural texts such as Hollywood films in teaching courses related to Christianity, theology, and/or religious studies.
Baugh, L. (1997). Imagine the divine: Jesus and the Christ-figures in film. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward.
Goodacre, M. (2000). The synoptic Jesus and the celluloid Christ: Solving the synoptic problem through film. Journal for the Study of the New Testament, 80, 31-43. Kozlovic, A. K. (2007). Christian education and the popular cinema: The creative fusion of film, faith and fun. McMaster Journal of Theology and Ministry, 9, 50-71. Lyden, J. C. (2003). Film as religion: Myths, morals, and rituals. New York: New York University Press.
Marsh, C. (2007). Theology goes to the movies: An introduction to critical Christian thinking. London: Routledge.
Mercadante, L. (2007). Using films to teach theology. Theological Education, 42(2), 19-28. Stone, B. P. (2000). Faith and film: Theological themes at the cinema. St. Louis, MO: Chalice Press.
How to start and legitimize an eSports Organization
Garcia, Ruben A., Munoz, Jorge Munoz, Evelin Grigsby, Alexa (Sam Houston State Univ., USA)
eSports is a fast growing competition that relies upon videogames as a means to engage competitors in a unique format of play that harnesses the best of videogame play within competitive arenas while focusing on the cooperation and camaraderie evident in the deepest of collaborations. This presentation will delve into the history of eSports and its impact on society and schooling.
This presentation will detail a successful university eSports program and discuss how it has had positive impacts on not only the communities within Texas, but the individuals who engage in the organization as well. The main part of the presentation will explain how to start and create a strong foundation for your student organization at your school. Though eSports organizations are relatively new to university campuses in Texas, they are rapidly growing in popularity. This means understanding the specifics in starting an organization, as well as making the organization as impactful and inclusive as possible, are increasingly important. In order to start an organization, the university has requirements that must be met. These will vary according to each different university, but we will cover requirements that can help build a strong organization such as minimum number of members; organization purpose; the role of faculty advisors; the role of officers; and the a constitution and bylaws. We will also cover key concepts that groups need to undertake once a student organization has been approved. These key concepts include Leadership, Marketing, University Partnerships, Community Involvement, and Event Hosting and Tournaments. One key reason our eSports organization was established was to build a community that creates unity amongst all players. This involves not only abiding by university policies, but constantly working to interact with students, promoting the organization in order to recruit new members, and hosting events to grow the eSports community as a whole. While accomplishing these tasks we also use everyday skills that are used in both school and the workforce. We hope that this presentation helps explain the importance of eSports, how to start an organization, and how to legitimize your organization. We wanted to share our knowledge of eSports so all students at universities and schools have an opportunity to embrace these genuine experiences as we have.
MI-GO: A friendly robot to introduce computational thinking
Loureiro, Maria Jose (ccTICua / Universidade de Aveiro) Moreira, Filipe T. (Universidade de Aveiro)
Despite having lived surrounded by technology for several millenniums never has technology been as present in our lives as today. In a world where children are born surrounded by high technology (smartphones, tablets, sophisticated toys, robots), understanding the world created by men (technologies) has become as important as understanding the natural world (Bers, 2008).
Bers and Horn (2010) indicate two reasons why technology isn’t given attention during the early years: on the one hand, this happens because children aren’t developed enough to be able to understand abstract phenomena and also because there are few technological resources which are appropriate to the children’s age, so that they can develop technology based projects. To these two reasons we also add, the weak training teachers and pre-school teachers have in this area. One possible approach to education on technology is through robotics. This approach is particularly efficient during the first schooling years, as they represent children’s crucial cognitive, motor and social development phases. The use of robots also allows children to participate in interactions and negotiations as they play to learn and learn how to play (Resnick, 2003).
Thus, in this study, we aimed at assessing if the children involved in this research, when exposed to technology and to adequate challenges, would be able to learn how to program their robots without the direct intervention of an adult and which were their preferences in terms of tangible and graphical programming. To do so, we have used the MI-GO robot.
The MI-GO robot, which is still a prototype, uses tangible programming though blocks which communicate with the robot via Bluetooth after being connected to a central block. The robot is equipped with blocks that allow it to go forward, turn left/right (at a 90 degree angle or by choosing a specific angle) and also allows it to use repetitions. We have chosen this robot because several previous studies highlight that children tend to prefer tangible programming to other kinds of graphical programming, as shown in the study developed by Sapounidis e Demetriadis (2012).
In this case study we have used a qualitative methodology (Crewell, 2005). Several activities were initially developed, which were revised several times until finding the final version. Later, assessment tools were developed, namely observations grids and an anonymous questionnaire to determine students’ opinions and perceptions about the activities, their performances and the robot itself. This study involved 27 primary school children.
When analysing the data obtained through the observation grids, we realize that all seven groups were able to solve the challenges they were given using tangible programming. However, when the groups used graphical programming language not all challenges were solved, with only two groups being able to find the correct solutions for all the challenges given.
In terms of individual challenges, most students (26) chose to use tangible programming instead of graphical programming to solve the challenges. These data are supported by the analysis of the questionnaire, where 26 students mention they prefer tangible programming to graphical programming. Students justify their choices by saying “it’s simpler”; “I can immediately see the error”, “it’s funnier”. All of these students were able to solve the given challenges.
The student who chose to use graphical programming language, decided to do so because this method provided him with more opportunities to solve the challenges and also allowed him to create animations. This student was also able to solve all the challenges. When it comes to the data from the questionnaire, all students claimed they enjoyed the activities and working in groups.
Data shows children were able to learn how to program a robot, using a tangible interface, without direct intervention from an adult when exposed to appropriate technology and challenges. However, this did not occur when the interface was a graphical programming language. Students justify this with the higher difficulty level involved and with the higher number of programming options.
When it comes to their preferences, 96.3% of the students preferred the tangible programming interface to the graphical one.
Bers, M.U. (2008). Blocks, robots and computers: learning about technology in early childhood. Nova Yorque: Teacher’s College Press.
Bers, M.U., Horn, M.S. (2010). Tangible Programming in Early Childhood: Revisiting Developmental Assumptions through New Technologies. Boston: Tufts University. Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational Research: planing, conducting, an evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Licoln: Kevin M. Davis. Resnick, M. (2003). Playful learning and creative societies. Education Update, 8(6). Sapounidis, T., Demetriadis S., (2012). Exploring children preferences regarding tangible and graphical tools for introductory programming. 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (pp. 316-320).
Back to Old-School Dictation: What I have learned, experienced, and shared
Oh, Yura (Kookmin University)
Over time, culture became a vital aspect in language learning. As Barry Tomalin(2008) states, culture is the 5th essential skill in language learning. No matter which language skill we focus on, it is inevitable avoiding the culture in language. Dictation, known as a method in language learning, has been a favorite to many for language learning approach. It may be old fashioned or out-of-date, it still has advantages that cannot be overlooked by language learners.
In this poster session, the presenter will present how she personally studied English effectively through dictating movies.
The learning process of dictation can be divided into two; technical vocabulary and everyday routines. In general, technical vocabularies are content-related specific words, and everyday routines are known as expressions we use in our everyday basis. After watching a movie, the presenter dictated the scenes little by little and divided the expressions into two. By the sorting of technical and routines, the author was able to gain cultural knowledge through the technical vocabularies and expressions through routines. In this poster session, the presenter will share two experiences; The devil weairs Prada ’ and ‘Good Will Hunting ’ in order to present the differences and methods of utilizing dictation with movies.
Tomalin, B. (2008). “Culture the fifth language skill”, British Council. See https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/culture-fifth-language-skill
Exploring the Potential of an Online Simulated World to Engage Students in Social Studies Content
Paek, Seungoh (University of Hawai’i at Manoa) Hoffman, Daniel L. (Columbia University) Au, Helen(University of Hawai’i at Manoa)
According to Legrain (2002) our lives are becoming “increasingly intertwined with those of distant people and places around the world—economically, politically, and culturally” (p. 4). This reality has prompted many scholars to argue for a greater emphasis on developing students’ global competence. Global competence has been defined as the ability to contribute to knowledge, as well as comprehend, analyze, and evaluate its meaning in the context of an increasingly globalized world (NASULGC, 2004).
Simulations are one class of tool that may assist educators in helping students’ think about global competence. Simulations are computer-based interactive environments with an underlying model of a system or a process (Banks, Carson, Nelson, & Nicol, 2009). Simulations have been used to explore a variety of social studies topics including a U.S. Senate office (Lay & Smarick, 2006), the Cuban Missile Crisis (Pace, Bishel, Beck, Holquist, & Makowski, 1990), the Holocaust (Schweber, 2004), and treaty negotiation (Gehlbach et al., 2008). Despite these examples, Gehlbach et al. (2008) argue that relatively little is known about the extent to which simulations improve learning and motivational outcomes for students in social studies classes.
Given the need to provide educators with tools that make global competence more tangible, the current research examined the impact of a political and economic simulation on student motivation and learning. Three research questions were asked:
1. Will a simulation of political and economic development impact students’ motivation for social studies?
2. Will a simulation of political and economic development interest students over eight two-hour sessions?
3. Will a simulation of political and economic development alter students’ understanding of the features and actions of a successful country in a globalized world?
Using a one-group pretest-posttest research design (n = 26), the study consisted of three phases: pre-simulation, simulation, and post-simulation. In the pre-simulation phase, participants completed two motivation surveys: one about the domain of social studies and the other about playing the simulation. In addition, participants completed a concept- mapping exercise prompting them to capture their understanding of the features and actions necessary for a country to be successful and sustainable in a global context. Participants were given 20 minutes to complete the concept-mapping activity.
In the simulation phase of the study, participants played the computer-based simulation individually for eight sessions over a two-week period. Each session lasted approximately 90 minutes and began with a brief 5-minute overview by the research staff. The remainder of the time participants “ran” their simulated countries which involved producing and trading goods and caring for their country’s population by providing food and services. On the ninth session, the study transitioned to the post-simulation phase. In this phase, all participants completed a “post-intervention” concept map and two motivation surveys.
The findings from the social studies motivation survey show that after eight sessions using the simulation, participants’ self-reported motivation for the domain of social studies did not change significantly. However, a paired samples t-test revealed a significant change in participants’ self-reported intrinsic motivation for the simulation experience from pre-test to post-test, t(25) = 2.541, p = .018. The results revealed that while the participants began the intervention with a fairly high degree of intrinsic motivation (M = 5.25, SD = .90) their motivation increased after experiencing the simulation for eight consecutive sessions (M = 5.74, SD = 1.02). This suggests student motivation remained high, and even increased, after more than 600 minutes of time leading simulated countries in the simulated world. Lastly, a comparison of participants’ concept maps from pre-simulation to post-simulation suggests there was a significant difference in terms of the average number of nodes per concept map, t(25) = 2.14, p = .042, as well as the number of connectors drawn from one node to another, t(25) = 2.42, p = .023. In theory, denser more interconnected concept maps may be evidence of participants’ conceptual change related to their understanding of the features and actions necessary for countries to be successful in a global context. Taken together, these results suggest that leading a simulated country in over a two-week period has a positive, measurable impact on student understanding the complexities involved in leading a successful country.
Despite the limitations of a small sample size and a one-group experimental design, this study provides some encouraging, albeit preliminary, evidence that given the right opportunities, middle school students are willing and able to wrestle with the challenges of being global leaders in the 21st Century. For the presentation, the extended findings from the motivation surveys, the concept maps, and student essays will be discussed in detail, along with an overview of the educational simulation used. While the results of the study suggest there is a potential to engage middle school students in the domain of social studies using an online simulated world, it is acknowledged that further research is needed to better understand what aspects of the simulation experience contribute to student engagement and learning.
Banks, J., Carson, J. S., Nelson, B. L., & Nicol, D. M. (2009). Discrete-event simulation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Gehlbach, H., Brown, S. W., Ioannou, A., Boyer, M. a., Hudson, N., Niv-Solomon, A., … Janik, L. (2008). Increasing interest in social studies: Social perspective taking and self-efficacy in stimulating simulations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(4), 894-914. doi:10.1016/j.cedpsych.2007.11.002
Lay, J. C., & Smarick, K. J. (2006). Simulating a senate office: The impact on student knowledge and attitudes. Journal of Political Science Education, 2(2), 131-146. doi:10.1080/15512160600668967
Legrain, P. (2002). Open World: The truth about globalization. London, England: Abacus.
NASULGC. (2004, October). A call to leadership: The presidential role in internationalizing the university. Retrieved from http://www.aplu.org/library/a-call-to-leadership-the- presidential-role-in-internationalizing-the-university/file.
Pace, D., Bishel, B., Beck, R., Holquist, P., & Makowski, G. (1990). Structure and spontaneity: Pedagogical tensions in the construction of a simulation of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The History Teacher, 24(1), 53-65.
Schweber, S. A. (2004). Making sense of the Holocaust: Lessons from classroom practice. New York, NY: Teachers
Integrating Technology in Homework: Flipgrid and Kaizena
Fitzgerald, Aaron T., (Mokwon University)
In the 21st century there are many ways to harness technology and to implement the use of new technologies and apps into the classroom. One realisation of this technology is the ease of which it can be integrated into the classroom. When teaching English as a second language, or when teaching any students in their non-native language, the ease of use is all the more important. Not only the ease, but the relevance of the technology becomes more important. Flipgrid and Kaizena are two very different applications that will enhance a student’s and a teacher’s classroom experience with very little effort. Flipgrid is an online platform where students can record short responses to the teacher’s questions; whether it is a thought-provoking critical thinking assignment, or a simple question of what their summer vacation plans are. While teachers need to create a user account in order to set up their online classroom, students only need to click a hyperlink or enter the classroom and question code into the accompanying phone app (ios and Android compatible). A perfect tool to get students to rehearse and practice speaking outside of the classroom.
Kaizena is a slightly less user-friendly application, although its value could be equally as high. Kaizena is another online platform where students submit their homework in the form of a word file; for essays or written assignments. This platform links with the teachers and the students’ google accounts. The teacher is able to correct and give feedback to students about their papers and engage students in an online dialogue about the revisions for ongoing drafts. Additionally, the teacher can record a voice message to talk to students directly if they so desire. Students can respond to the teacher’s feedback and post questions of their own. Both students and teachers need active google accounts in order to use this application.
2. A Theory of Acquisition Relevant to Integrating Technology: Recording Speaking
In a crowded classroom where the teacher may not always get a chance to interact with each student a teacher could ask students to record their speaking so that they could hear every student’s progress, additionally; “when learners record themselves speaking, they can also listen to how they sound, and this should help them understand how well they speak English and what they need to do to get better. many will practise what they say or record themselves several times before they are happy with the result.” (Stanley, 2015, p. 147).
In class, many language learners feel anxiety when asked to speak. Allowing them to practice for a recording outside of the class gives them as many opportunities as they want to feel comfortable with their product. Setting recording tasks as homework could be a more rewarding experience for students as they may spend more thinking about how they’re speaking and performing, rather than simply going through the motions of a vocab worksheet or something of that nature.
Stanley, G., & Thornbury, S. (2015). Language learning with technology: Ideas for integrating technology in the language classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Learner Engagement in Online Writing Conference in Blended Learning at University Level
Lee, So • Lee, Chung Hyun (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies)
In second language (L2) writing pedagogy, time and feedback are considered essential for learners’ successful writing process (Raimes, 1983). Teacher feedback is one of the most significant factors for the development of writing ability. Teacher-student writing conference, as an alternative written teacher commentary, provides for students with opportunities for dynamic and personal discussion on the writing issues (Ferris, 2003). However, students in EFL (English as a foreign language) contexts cannot easily participate in the writing conference because of the limited number of class sessions and the large number of students per class. The online writing conference through computer-mediated communication technology has been suggested and found to have positive impact on the of students’ perceptions and L2 writing skills development (Lee, 2015; So & Lee, 2014). This study aims to explore the university students’ engagement and perceptions in one-to-one teacher-student online writing conference in blended learning.
The subjects of the study consisted of eight Korean university students enrolled in one academic English writing course in Seoul. Qualitative data were gathered through the writing assignments, the teacher-student writing conference documents, reflective journals, and classroom observations. The students produced four essays, following the process-oriented writing approach in blended learning. The students and the teacher interacted via e-mail and bulletin board system (BBS) for the conference. The obtained data were qualitatively analyzed using a coding scheme.
The results of the study are as follows. First, the students were actively engaged in the writing conference in blended learning, clarifying and elaborating sentences and expressions, asking questions, negotiating and constructing meaning. They autonomously sought to find out appropriate expressions using the Web content and resources and to make sure whether they were correct or not. Second, the students had very positive perceptions of the online writing conference. They found it helpful and useful for the improvement of writing skills. They considered the convenience of the online conference as one of the biggest merits since they could interact with the teacher regardless of time and space. In conclusion, the online writing conference provides the academic arena for construction and negotiation of meaning.
Ferris, D. R., (2003). Response to student writing: Implications for second language students.
Mahwah, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate, Inc. Lee, C. H. (2015). Principles and application of MALL. Seongnam: Bookorea. Raimes, A. (1983). Techniques in teaching writing. New York: Oxford University Press. So, L., & Lee, C. H. (2014). The impact of peer response on L2 writing in blended learning in higher education. Korean Journal of Applied Linguistics, 30(4), 205-234.
A Study on an Online English Teacher Training Course Employing Virtual Classrooms and Discussion Boards: The case for learners’ perceptions
Park, Sujung (Hanyang Cyber University)
One of the main educational changes that the development of ICT has brought out is the emergence of many online universities. This new educational environment has merits such as time and place independence and low tuition, making it possible for people in diverse situations to have equal learning opportunities. However, one also must consider the effectiveness of online learning, especially if the given course requires the integration of theory and practice. Thus, this study investigated the learning experiences in such a course – an English teacher training course offered online.
2. Theoretical Background for Web, Multimedia-based Teaching and Learning
The theoretical arguments for using the web or multimedia to create effective teaching and learning environments lie with constructivism. In other words, it has been argued that (a) by using multimedia employing multiple human senses, one can construct a real-world-like learning environment, being able to offer more authentic, meaningful learning experiences, (b) one can also offer a more integrative and creative learning context, and (c) by using the time-and-place-independent web, learners can interact with others as well as within themselves metacognitively (e.g., Althaus, 1997).
3. Summary of Previous Studies on Online English Teacher Training Courses
A review of previous research (e.g., Kim, 2007; Park, 2008) shows that only a few studies have reported on the effectiveness or students’ learning experiences in online English teacher training courses. Kim, for example, by utilizing asynchronous discussion boards, looked into how English teachers understood theories and linked them to practice and how they perceived these online learning experiences. The present study then extended this study by actually implementing virtual English classrooms as essential elements of the online course and explored the students’ learning experiences through these virtual class observations and reflections on them via asynchronous online discussion boards.
4. Research Questions
1) What learning experiences do observations and asynchronous online discussions on virtual English classes offer to the students in the online English teacher training course?
2) Do the students perceive online observations of the virtual English classes and in-class observations of real English classes as having comparable learning experiences?
3) Does instructor participation as a feedback-provider in the students’ asynchronous online discussions make a difference in their learning experiences?
4) Does the students’ participation in the asynchronous online discussions help to enhance social presence in the online course?
5) How do the students use the asynchronous online discussion boards for interactional purposes?
The participants were 49 Korean students majoring in English enrolled in the online course, “English Teaching Methodology & Practice” offered by a large four-year online university in Korea. A total of 13 online lecture-format classes were offered, and during each class, a video of about 3 minutes titled “a Quick Look into the Classroom” was shown in an animation format in lieu of in-class observation of a real English classroom (see Figure 1). After observing these virtual classrooms, the students responded to the instructor’s questions on the asynchronous discussion boards, followed by her comments. The frequency of these instructor responses differed to address RQ3. The research instruments comprised a) 13 videos of virtual English classes, b) 13 discussion/reflection questions on these classes, and c) survey questions on the students’ overall learning experience with the course. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to analyze the survey responses.
The Effects of a Learner-Centered Digital Storytelling Project in a University Setting
Park, Punahm (Duksung Women’s University) Redmond, Christopher (Duksung Women’s University)
This study was designed to explore the efficiency of the learner-centered digital storytelling project by integrating technology into a college English program. In order to observe the effects of the learner collaborative digital storytelling approach in a university setting, we administrated a mock TOEIC speaking test and a pre- and post- questionnaire to 127 university students. We also observed the classes and interviewed the students to closely analyze their learning attitude to the digital storytelling approach. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the score for the pre- and post TOEIC speaking test. However, their perception of their language improvement in listening and speaking among four skills was not significant. It also indicated that the students’ motivation and collaboration among learning attitudes were significantly increased statistically. The students’ collaboration on creating the digital story was supported with the help of the well- integrated technology and the instructors’ feedback designed by the researchers. With the students’ collaboration in a group, they were able to become creative to developing their own story. Based on the results, we suggest the educational implications for those who wish to develop a learner-centered digital storytelling approach for university students.
visual and audio development resources over the past 10 years. The purpose of this study is to discuss a case study examining effective ways to implement digital storytelling language learning in a college English program. The investigation aims to understand better the impact on student learning when they take advantage of digital storytelling with technology for their language learning. Toward this goal, we developed a college English program based on the digital storytelling for university students. Therefore, this study seeks to answer the following three questions:
1. To what extent does the learner-centered digital storytelling project improve the students’ English language skills?
2. To what extent does the learner-centered digital storytelling project enhance the students’ learning attitude?
3. How do the students perceive the effectiveness of the learner-centered digital storytelling project with the use of technology?
Digital storytelling can be a powerful learning tool (Sadic, 2008) and students can create a digital story related to personal tales. Robin (2008) explained that Digital storytelling allows computer users to become creative storytellers through the traditional processes of selecting a topic, conducting some research, writing a script, and developing an interesting story.
To improve the students’ language skills, we developed a 45-hour intensive winter English program. The curriculum was developed based on a digital storytelling approach integrating the use of technology into the college English classroom. The whole curriculum consisted of three parts to help the students’ language learning: presentation skills; TOEIC speaking skills; and digital storytelling. In this research, we focused on the procedure and results of the storytelling project integrating the use of technology.
We sought to uncover whether the participants – namely, university freshmen of low- intermediate English ability – believed that the Digital Storytelling project benefited their English proficiency and enhanced their learning attitude. We aimed to find out what skills, if any, they felt had improved as a result of their 45-hour intensive Digital Storytelling program.
Students spent 15 hours of class time working on their stories. They were required to choose a partner, with whom they worked to create a story of their choosing. They were permitted to create either a fictional- or non-fictional story. To prepare their stories, they were shown 2-3 examples of previous digital stories to give them an idea of the format; they were then given the remainder of the class to decide upon a topic. For the next 3 hours out of 15, they were given time to prepare their 350-400-word script under the guidance of the teacher. The teacher proof-read their finished script before allowing them to begin recording it with their Smartphones (hours 5 and 6). During this period, other students were given the chance to finish their scripts, having missed one or two previous classes. Hours 7 and 8 were spent becoming familiar with the video-creating software, We Video, with the help of the technician. Since creating a digital story requires specific skills and concepts, the researchers introduced the digital storytelling concept, equipment and software resources required to create digital stories. The technician showed the students how to use the digital software to create narrations and images and import them to We Video. In addition, sample digital stories were completed by the researchers to provide first-hand experience in exactly what the students would complete. Hours 9-14 were spent in the center’s computer labs, where students were given time to make their digital stories using the video-making website, We Video. During this time, the teacher acted as supervisor, ensuring that students were able to use the technology appropriately. By the end of hour 14, the teacher had checked the finished product of every digital story before allowing students to publish their story on the We Video website. For the final hour the students presented their finished stories to their classmates in their assigned classroom. The teacher then gave each pair of students a grade for their stories.
Britsch, S. (2010) Photo-booklets for English language learning: Incorporating visual communication into early childhood teacher preparation. Early Childhood Education Journal 38(3), 171-177.
Robin, B. R. (2008). Digital storytelling: A powerful technology tool for the 21st century classroom. Theory Into Practice, 47(3), 220-228.
Sadic, A. (2008). Digital storytelling: A meaningful technology-integrated approach for engaged student learning. Educational Technology Research & Development, 5^(4), 487-506.
Early Experiences with ePortfolio-based Learning in an Open Distance eLearning Environment in the Philippines
Librero , Al Francis (University of the Philippines Open University)
Over the years, electronic portfolios have been studied and used extensively by institutions of higher education for the benefits they bring on multiple fronts. An ePorftolio is a powerful tool for assessment and reflection for students and faculty alike. But unlike other assessment tools and methods that are confined within a single course, provided with an appropriate system, an ePortfolio is able to help facilitate an integrated academic program- level assessment of students. It also becomes an avenue for which content can be showcased at the individual or institutional level to the public.
This paper covers the initial stages of building an ePortfolio system and modifying the lesson plan and assessment policy of a pilot course in an undergraduate online academic program under the University of the Philippines Open University. These steps have been taken in an attempt to take advantage of the mentioned benefits, focusing on establishing an ePortfolio culture and developing students’ ability to become reflective learners. This paper is also intended to be a foundation for additional research in enhancing teaching and learning outcomes.
Brandes, G.M. and N. Boskic. (2008). Eportfolios: from description to analysis. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/502/1050
Brown, J.O. (2011). Dwell in possibility: PLAR and e-portfolios in the age of information and communication technologies. Retrieved September 1, 2011 from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/917/1767
Carson, A.S., S. McClam, J. Frank, and G.G. Hannum. (2014). ePortfolio as a catalyst for change in teaching: an autoethnographic examination of transformation. International Journal of ePortfolio, 4:1. 73-83.
Buzzetto-More, N. (2010). The E-Portfolio Paradigm: Informing, Educating, Assessing, and Managing With E-Portfolios. Informing Science Press, Santa Rosa, CA, USA. 1-14.
Doig, B., B. Illsley, J. McLuckie, and R. Parsons. (2006). Using ePortfolios to enhance reflective learning and development. Retrieved May 29, 2014 from http://www.personal.psu.edu/lda121/blogs/loisaimesbolg/Article_UsingEPortfoliosTo EnhanceReflection.pdf
Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by Doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford, UK.
Librero, A.F.D. (2012). Augmenting the learning management system of the UP Open University. Asian Association of Open Universities, 7:1. 55-62.
Lorenzo, G. and J. Ittelson. (2005). Demonstrating and assessing student learning with e- portfolios. Retrieved February 14, 2013 from
McIntyre, S. (2011). Case study: using ePortfolios as a reflective teaching tool. Retrieved May 29, 2014 from
Reese, M. and R. Levy. (2009). Assessing the future: e-portfolio trends, uses, and options in higher education. Educause Center for Applied Research Bulletin 2009(4). Retrieved February 14, 2013 from
Rhodes, T., H.L. Chen, C. E. Watson, and W. Garrison. (2014). Editorial: a call for more rigorous ePortfolio research. International Journal of ePortfolio, 4:1. 1-5.
Shada, A., K. Kelly, R. Cox, and S. Malik. (2011). Growing a new culture of assessment: planting ePortfolios in the metro academies program. International Journal of ePortfolio, 1:1. 71-83.
Watson, C.E. (2012). Current Trends and Future Directions Regarding ePortfolio Research. In P. Resta (Ed.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2012 (pp. 3968-3970). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Retrieved June 2, 2014 from http://www.editlib.org/p/40226.
Wilton, D. (2004). Benefits of an eportfolio. Retrieved May 29, 2011 from http://www.danwilton.com/eportfolios/benefits.php.
Reading Between the Lines: Effective approaches for integrating movie scripts in English classes
Daniel Svoboda (Hankuk Uni. of Foreign Studies, Korea)
How Positives Perceptions of Lesson Delivery in Korean Cyber Universities Relate to Student Outcomes
Lange, Christopher (Joongbu University) Costley, Jamie (Kongju National University)
The past couple decades have seen an increase in online learning, particularly within higher education. This has particularly been the case in South Korea, where students are foregoing opportunities to study at traditional brick-and-mortar institutions and enrolling in cyber universities at an increasing rate. Although this seems to be a viable option for university students, the delivery of instruction in a non-traditional setting comes with challenges. In particular, instructors in cyber university classes need to be able to adapt their lessons to address the needs of students in an online learning environment. The presentation of lectures and delivery of materials to complement those lectures needs to be done in a way that is useful for the students who may face some challenges that they would not face in an offline classroom. Effectively implementing such integral aspects of online lessons in cyber universities may lead to positive outcomes such as higher rates of student satisfaction, perceived learning, and engagement. Therefore, it is the aim of this study to promote effective instructional practices through lesson delivery that best benefit the students. With this in mind, a group of cyber university students (n=88) in South Korea were surveyed to see if how effective use of lectures and materials within their lessons correlated with higher levels of satisfaction, learning, and engagement. Furthermore, a discussion of how to improve aspects of lesson delivery within cyber universities in South Korea is included.
Learning and Design: Lessons from European funded projects
Vrasidas, Charalambos (Univ. of Nicosia, Cyprus)
Dr. Charalambos Vrasidas is co-founder and Executive Director of CARDET – Centre for the Advancement of Research & Development in Educational Technology (http://www.cardet.org), a non-profit research and development centre based in Cyprus with partners around the world. He is also Professor of Learning Technologies and Innovation and Associate Dean for e-learning at the University of Nicosia. He held positions at academic institutions and research and development centers including Visiting Professor at Western Illinois University, Lecturer at Arizona State University, Program Director at the Satellite Education Network, Coordinator of Research and Evaluation and Assistant Director for Distance Learning at the Center for the Application of Information Technologies, in Illinois. He currently serves on the Executive Committee of the International Council for Educational Media, an UNESCO affiliated organization, focusing on Educational Media design, distribution, standardization, and use. A former school teacher and Fulbright scholar, he holds an M.Ed. in Instructional Technology and Telecommunications and a PhD from Arizona State University in Educational Media and Computers with emphasis on instructional design and evaluation for e- learning. He has received grants to design, develop, implement, and evaluate more than 150 research and development projects from major funding agencies and corporations including the National Science Foundation, the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation, The Pew Charitable Trusts, United Nations, Microsoft, the US Department of Education, and the European Commission. He has developed and evaluated innovative technology projects and e-learning initiatives for various contexts and has consulted with private companies, and Ministries and Departments of Education in Asia, Europe, and the United States. He has published 10 books and more than 100 articles in international journals and edited volumes. He currently serves as Editor-in-Chief for Educational Media International. A well-known speaker, he has presented more than 200 papers at national and international events.
Development of an Interactive Multimedia Spanish Learning Application with a Focus on Authentic Material
Blanco, Laura Maria Cortes (Kyushu University) Fuyuno, Miharu (Kyushu University)
Researchers in the field of language teaching and learning have agreed on the importance of interacting with the target culture when learning a language (cf. Byram et al., 2003). Furthermore, it has been shown that culture can be integrated into the Spanish learning curriculum (cf. Miquel et al., 2004.). Although the importance of integrating culture into the language learning curriculum has been widely investigated in the research field, very few of the learning materials commonly used in the SFL (Spanish as a Foreign Language) classroom have authentic cultural information as a vital part of their resources. The present study aims to develop a multimedia Spanish language learning application with a focus on authentic material by applying a material development process of the ADDIE (Analysis- Design-Development-Implementation-Evaluation) model.
When designing a multimedia learning application, the ADDIE model is one of the principal instructional design models (cf. Management Association, 2011). According to the ADDIE model, there are five significant processes in designing pedagogic material: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Following these steps, this study first analyzed Spanish language course curricula from Japanese universities and textbooks that comply with the A1 level of CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages) in order to specify the needs and the pertinent lesson contents for the application. The learning objectives in the university curricula and A1 level were extracted and their components were analyzed.
Afterwards, authentic Spanish material that corresponded to the components of university course objectives and CEFR objectives were examined and specified. For example, studying the use of Spanish pronouns (ex. tu, usted), one of the common challenging topics for novice SFL learners, would be complemented with a multimedia lesson activity in which Spanish pop songs are used as authentic material. After analyzing needs and designing lesson content, a prototype application for Windows PCs was developed using the Unity 3D software (cf. Blackman, 2011) (Figure 1). Unity 3D is a game engine widely used in the field of digital content development. It enables us to create interactive lesson content for a cross platform environment (ex. Windows PCs, iOS smartphones, and Android smartphones).
For example, the first unit in the prototype application was designed as a sequence of interactive games that focused on target vocabulary. The prototype unit included interactive flash cards with audio and photographs, reading material that featured authentic cultural information and an interactive word-matching game based on the flash card vocabulary and the authentic reading material.
Experimental lessons were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the prototype application. A lesson plan was developed using novice (A1 level) learners as target students and self-introduction as the main topic. The lesson aimed to provide the students with an introduction to the Spanish language by teaching basic sentences that would allow them to introduce themselves and others (i.e., friends) using basic vocabulary regarding occupations.
Two types of short Spanish lessons, approximately 20 minutes each, were conducted. The learning content was the same in both lessons, but the materials were different. In Lesson A, the control condition, the teacher only used a traditional textbook. In Lesson B, the prototype multimedia application was used as classroom material. Twelve Japanese learners who had little to no previous knowledge of Spanish participated in the two types of lessons. After each lesson, the participants answered questionnaire sheets that included 5-point Likert scales on items such as effectiveness for learning vocabulary, material design, and learning motivation for the Spanish language (cf. Table 1). The 5-point scale was labeled as follows: 1=strongly disagree, 2= disagree, 3=neutral, 4=agree, 5=strongly agree.
The first unit in the prototype application, which featured authentic cultural information about famous figures of Colombian culture and their occupations, was implemented in the experiment condition. All of the information presented in the prototype application worked as an extension of a traditional introductory lesson with a typical A1 level textbook.
After the experiment, the answers for the questionnaire sheets were computed and analyzed. Two-tailed t-tests were used to evaluate the differences between the two lesson conditions. The results indicated: (1) Participants’ motivation in learning Spanish increased with Lesson B more than Lesson A (p < .05). (2) Lesson B was considered as more interesting than Lesson A (p < .01). (3) Lesson B was considered as more effective in learning target vocabulary than Lesson A (p < .05). (4) The participants gave a higher rating to the material design on Lesson B (p <.01). From these results, it can be assumed that the prototype multimedia application was effective in increasing the novice SFL learners’ motivation and understanding of Spanish vocabulary.
This study examined the possibility of development and implementation of a multimedia learning application for SFL learners that features authentic material. After analyzing learners’ needs and designing the prototype application, experimental lessons were conducted to compare the effectiveness of traditional material and the prototype application. Although there are various limitations in this first study, the results of the experimental lessons indicated a positive tendency: students find SFL lessons more interesting and effective when learning about culture during language lessons with an interactive application that features authentic material. Furthermore, when presented with the choice of using a multimedia application like the one developed in this study, they showed interests in using it consistently.
In our future studies, the findings of the experiment will be used as a basis to expand the prototype application. More interactive multimedia contents that integrate authentic cultural material as well as the topics of the A1 CEFR level will be developed and examined.
Byram, M., & Grundy, P. (2003). Context and culture in language teaching and learning.
Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Management Association (Ed.). (2011). Instructional Design: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications (Vol. 1). IGI Global.
Miquel, L & Sans, N. (2004). El componente cultural: Un ingrediente mas en las clases de lengua. RedELE: Revista Electronica de Didactica/Espanol Lengua Extranjera. No.0.
Language Learning through Digital Bricolage
Sherman, Brandon (Woosong University) Briggs, Neil (Woosong University)
Within the realm of educational research, the term bricolage was appropriated by Joe Kincheloe to represent an epistemology that calls for the spanning of diverse resources and methods in the quest for greater knowledge and understanding. A bricoleur creates a patchwork, drawing from disparate resources to accomplish an endeavor. Here, we consider the endeavor of language acquisition approached as bricolage, and learners as bricoleurs exploring and constructing their own personal digital biome amidst the larger ecology of digital resources. This approach has implications not only for language acquisition, but also for the power dynamic of the classroom. Rather than focusing on what digital resources afford teachers in terms of instruction and control, we emphasize students as independent learners encouraged to re-envision existing digital resources as helping them reach their individual goals. In this presentation we explore the term bricolage, clarify how it is being used in our research, and discuss its value for the language acquisition context. The concept is then illustrated through a short portrait of a language learning bricoleur, and through examples from language classrooms. This will be followed by a discussion of how this phenomenon can best be investigated, along with the details of a mixed-method study doing just that. Finally, consideration will be given to the endeavor of fostering digital bricolage in language students, the ways in which they might be encouraged to become digital bricoleurs.
Adapting Teachers to ICT Classrooms
Ozkul, Ali E.
(Anadolu Univ., Turkey)
Graduated from Bogazici University Department of Industrial Engineering in 1976. Did his master’s degree in the same department and doctorate at the Department of Quantitative Business Analysis of Anadolu University Graduate School of Social Sciences. Besides working as faculty member at Anadolu University Industrial Engineering Department held various administrative positions at Anadolu University, Director of Graduate School of Sciences (1993-1996), Vice Dean/Dean of Open Education Faculty (1996-2004), Vice- Rector of Anadolu University (2006-2009). Elected twice (for 2002-2010) by the Inter- University Council as a member to Council of Higher Education Turkey; served as executive board member between 2008-2010. In collaboration with TUBA (Turkish Academy of Sciences) he has pioneered in the establishment of Open Education Resources Consortium of Turkey in 2007.
Dr. Ozkul has international experience in various countries; Vocational and Advanced Training as REFA Teacher in Germany (1986-1987); Visiting Scholar at Departments of Quantitative Business Analysis and Industrial Engineering of Cleveland State University – USA (1991-1992); Visiting Researcher at NIME – National Institute of Multimedia Education Japan (2005); Visiting Researcher at KNOU: Korean National Open University South Korea (2008)
Dr.Ozkul currently serves as professor at Anadolu University Open Education Faculty Department of Economics and Administrative Programs, teaches graduate and post graduate courses and conducts research in the field of open and distance learning as well as disability support systems. He has been involved many national and international projects in the fields of open and distance education and become author/co-author of various books, articles, essays and research papers.
Smart Education of Communication and Sharing Using Digital Media
Jung, Yongseok (Muwon Elementary School)
“이렇게 빠르게 변화해 가는 정보화 사회에서 우리 교사가 해야 할 일은 무엇일까?” 그러기 위해서 우리 교사들 스스로 정보화 사회에 필요한 기능올 습득하려는 노력과 학생들의 생활의 장올 이해하고 그 이해를 통한 학습 효과를 향상 시킬 수 있는 방법 연구에 경주하려는 열린 마인드를 갖고 있어야 할 것이다. 스마트 교육과 다양한 미디어 활용교육올 통해서 학생 스스로 학습올 계획하고 수행하는 자기주도적 학습올 지향하고 다양한 액티비티, 콘텐츠를 활용한 체험기반의 창의적 학습이 앞으로 중요해질 것이라 본다.
스마트 교육의 가장 핵심인 협업올 통해서 집단 지성의 힘올 보여주고 학생 각각 가지고 있는 여러 지식올 함께 공유하고 보다 나은 지식으로 재구성할 수 있는 기회를 마련해주며 창의지성교육에 한발 더 나아갈 수 있도록 하였다. 즉 교사의 일방적인 지식 전달에서 벗어나 학생들 스스로 지식올 구성하고 동료 학습자와 함께 지식올 구성하는 것이 혼자 하는 것보다 더 가치 있는 일임올 인식하도록 하였다.
SNS 와 거꾸로 교실, 스마트교육 학습활동올 통해서 오프라인 수업에서 잘 참여하지 않았던 학생들도 활발히 참여하는 동기가 부여되며, 이는 SNS 를 통해 학생들의 역량과 가능성올 목격할 수 있다는 긍정적 측면이다. 온라인상에서 대화하는 학생들의 정보교환활동에서 교육적으로 유의미한 지점들이 발견된 것이다. 물론 오프라인에서의 대화가 훨씬 효과 있지만, 오프라인과 온라인올 어떻게 활용하는냐는 교사의 자율성에 달려있다고 본다.
SNS 와 미디어 (미디어와 클래스팅의 조합)활용 교육은 특혜(배움의 가정적.사 회적 환경)를 받지 못하는 아이들에게, 다른 곳이 아닌 교실 수업에서부터 단순 한 지식과 이해단계를 넘어 고차원적 사고력 학습자 중심의 활동올 통해 자기주 도적인 학습태도를 기대해 보고 학생들의 협동학습과 학생, 학부모, 교사간의 의사소통 활성화 등 많은 장점이 있다.
영어 시간에 토론하기에 익숙하지 않은 학생들올 위해 액션 러닝의 기법올 활 용하여 토론에 참여하고 자신의 의견올 포스트일에 적어 말로 하지 않아도 자신 의 의견올 드러낼 수 있는 기회를 제공하고, 동료 학습자와 의사소통올 원활하 게 할 수 있다는 장점도 발견하였다. 가족사랑과 자녀 인성교육의 시간으로 밥 상머리교육올 클래스팅과 함께 매월 1 회 운영한 ‘Classting 밥상머리’ 부모코칭 활 동, 생명존중교육올 위한 병아리 키우기 프로젝트를 진행하면서 우리 주변의 가 까운 동물올 이용한 활동올 고민하였다. 직접 학급에서 병아리 키우기 활동올 진행하면서 소중한 생명에 대한 수업진행, 학급의 친구들 모두와 함께 친하게 지내보자는 “친친 활동” 은 모둠별로 돌아가면서 마니또 만들기. 친구랑 방과 후 집에 초대하기, 파자마 활동 사진 공유 등 작은 것도 감사하는 태도 기르기 등 SNS를 활용하여(classting) 학생, 학부모 교사가 상호작용하여 소통하며 새로 운 지식올 재구성하는 경험이 가능하게 된 것이다.
많은 선생님들이 걱정하는 것처럼 스마트교육이 어색하지 않는 교실은 어떤 교실일까? 무엇보다도 수업의 주도권이 학생에게 넘겨주는 것이 가장 중요하다. 여기에는 수업올 할 때의 도구 선택 권리가 포함된다. 교실에서 교사가 디자인 한 교실 활동올 충실히 수행하면서 배움이 일어난 다고 할 때 학생 스스로가 만 족하고 성장하는 기회가 될 것이다. 그렇게 된다면 교실에서 학생들은 문제 해 결 과정에서 일어나는 모든 것에서 배움올 맛보는 즐거운 교실올 상상하고 맛보 게 될 것이라 본다.
버그만은 ᄊ교육은 곧 관계’라며 ‘교실올 새롭게 디자인하는 것，이 거꾸로수업 의 철학”이라고 이야기했다. 또 “동영상올 제작하는 이유는 요즘 학생들이 디 지털 문화에 친숙하다는 점 때문이다. 중요한 건 교사와 학생 사이 소통 시간올 확보하고 학생들이 배운 내용올 바탕으로 창의력 •문제해결력올 기를 수 있게 하는 것”이라고 강조했다.
학급에서 SNS 활용교육 지원율 위한 다양한 교육컨텐츠가 부족한 관계로 학습 자에게 제시할 수 있는 내용이 한정되어 있으므로 다양한 사례 및 교육자료의 수집 및 공유가 필요하다. 단순히 멀티미디어 자료를 이용하여 학습내용올 제시 한 것으로 학습목표에 도달했다는 오해가 있올 수 있다. 스마트 활용교육은 그 자체가 목적이 아니라 수업의 도구로써 활용되어야 할 것이며, 학습자가 지식정 보사회에서 능동적으로 살아 갈 수 있는 능력올 배양하는데 목적올 두어야 할 것이다. 21 세기 학습자 역량중심의 스마트교육은 학습자가 자기주도적인 학습 올 할 수 있도록 교사의 학습환경 설계가 매우 중요한 역할올 할 것이다. 학습 자들의 창의 인성 교육이 활발히 이루어지도록 다양한 교육적 시도가 필요할 것 이다.
Project Based Language Learning with Technology and Media
Lim, Kyuyun (Changdeok Girls’ Middle School)
It is often seen that many EFL learners have difficulties in making conversation with foreigners, even though they may have basic communication skills, due to a lack of cultural understanding or social skills. In a globalized society, a successful communication is not only based on language skills but also based on various 21st century skills such as cultural awareness, creative ways of thinking and collaboration. Project-based language learning aims to integrate real world experiences into language learning so that learners can use language beyond the classroom and develop the key skills. Technology and media can engage students into PBL processes more actively as they provides opportunities to create public products and to have real audiences.
This session discusses how teachers can incorporate technology and media into project- based language class. Technology and media can be used to launch a new project at the starting stage or to create and share students’ products. I will also share the lists of technology and media that teachers can use in the classroom and the experiences how they have been used in my PBL classroom.
Scrivener, J. (2011). Learning Teaching (3rd ed.). UK:Macmillan.
Larmer, J., & Mergendoller, J. (2015). Why we changed our model of the 8 essential elements of PBL. Retrieved from Buck Institute of Education website: http://bie.org/object/document/why_we_changed_our_model_of_the_8_essential_ele ments_of_pbl (assessed 2016-06-15) Theisen, T. (2011). 21st Century Skills Map—World Languages. Retrieved from Partnership for 21st Century. http://www.actfl.org/about-the-american-council-the-teaching- foreign-languages/resources/language-learning-the-21st
STEAM, SMART and Software Education
Choi, Jae Joong (Munsan Elementary School)
융합인재교육, SMART 교육올 지나오며 근래에 들어 Software 교육까지 교육의 목적올 달성하기 위한 다양한 방법적인 접근이 시도되고 있다. 본 발표자는 학생들의 배움이 충실히 일어날 수 있도록 도입되고 있는 세 가지의 교육 방법에 대해 사례를 들어 소개하고자 한다.
학습자의 학습 내용 발표와 교수자의 예시 자료 설명올 위해 교실에서 흔히 많이 사용되던 실물 화상기를 예로 들어보자. 학생은 발표 하나를 위해 교실 앞까지 번거롭게 이동올 해야 할 뿐 아니라 교사도 수업올 진행하면서 교탁 앞올 떠날 수 없게 만든다. 이를 보완하기 위한 방법으로 미러링올 제안하고 소개하고자 한다. 많은 사람들이 소유하고 있는 스마트폰올 실물 화상기로 활용한다면 훨씬 더 역동적이고 자유로운 수업올 운영할 수 있올 것이다.
다음으로 학습 결과물올 제작에 대해 이야기하고자 한다. 학습 결과물이라는 것은 학습자가 학습으로부터 얻음 배움올 스스로의 말과 행동 등의 다양한 표현 방식으로 표현해내는 것올 의미한다. 기존의 학습 결과물은 대부분 글이나 그림올 표현되는 한계를 보였다. 그러나 다양한 표현 양식올 갖고 있는 21 세기 학습자들에게는 좀 더 다양한 방법이 요구된다. 따라서 학습자들이 갖고 있는 스마트폰올 이용한 스톱 모션 제작올 통해 학습 결과물올 만들어낸다면 학습자들의 학습에 대한 적극적올 이끌어낼 수 있올 것이다.
최근 컴퓨터적 사고를 강조하며 소프트웨어 교육이 대두되고 있다. 우리 주변의 모든 사물올 컴퓨터 입력 장치로 사용할 수 있도록 해 주는 메이키 메이키의 활용올 통해 학습자들은 학습 과정에서 다양한 창의성올 발휘할 수 있게 될 것이다.
마지막으로 학교 교육 현장에서 이루어지는 다양한 설문 통계를 비롯해 보고서 작성까지 효율적으로 가능하게 해 주는 구글 드라이브를 이야기하고자 한다. 학교 현장에서 알게 모르게 교육과 관계 없는 업무로 인해 학습에 저해를 받는 경우가 있다. 또한 학습자들이 모여 함께 보고서를 작성해야 하는 경우도 있다. 이런 경우 구글 드라이브를 활용한다면 시공간의 한계를 뛰어넘는 효율적인 결과를 맛볼 수 있올 것이다.
Words, Pauses, False Starts, Self-Corrections and Repetitions: Measuring language fluency in oral proficiency tests
Were, Kevin (Kookmin University)
Language fluency can be defined as oral language proficiency in terms of speed, lack of hesitation, smoothness and efficiency, particularly under pressure of online delivery (Kormos, 2016). It is the ability to talk with a minimum of pauses, to produce “semantically dense” sentences without lots of filler material, to meet the communicative demands of different kinds of social contexts and situations, and to use language creatively and imaginatively by expressing ideas in new ways, with humor, metaphors, idiomatic expressions etc. (Fillmore, 1979). In the sense that these are all aspects of fluidity or language flow, all these factors express the temporal flow of language, underlying the fundamental aspect of fluency as speed. Lennon (2000) links fluency to degrees of automaticity and processing speed, with conventional divisions into (1) temporal fluency measured by rate of speaking, length of fluent runs between pauses, and the frequency, length and placement of pauses, and (2) vocal fluency measured by the number of false starts, reformulations and number of functionless repetitions.
Kormos and Denes (2006) detail ten measures of fluency that have been proposed in the literature. These are: speech rate (total number of syllables produced in a given speech sample including pause time); articulation rate (total number of syllables produced in a given speech sample); phonation-time ratio (percentage of time spent speaking as a percentage proportion of the time taken to produce the speech sample); mean length of runs (average number of syllables produced in utterances between pauses of 0.25 seconds and above); number of silent pauses per minute; mean length of pauses; total number of filled pauses such as uhm, er, mm per minute; total number of dysfluencies such as repetitions, restarts and repairs per minute; number of stressed words per minute; proportion of stressed words to the total number of words. They found that the best predictors of fluency, however, were speech rate, the number of syllables articulated per minute and the mean length of runs. The phonation-time ratio was also found to be a good predictor of fluency. Overlapping this result, Rossiter et al (2010) found that oral fluency correlates with appropriate speech rate, length, frequency and distribution of pauses and fillers such as uh and um, and mean length of run.
Language teachers, with large class groups and their own temporal constraints, aren’t usually afforded the luxury of being able to assess their students’ oral fluency in such a precise way and with the broad range of detailed measures that researchers have delineated. In high-stakes test situations, however, the assessment of fluency is an important part of assessing total oral ability. In this case, a simple word-count of oral language produced with a temporal constraint may provide an approximate guide to speaking fluency that is accurate enough to provide a fair assessment of student oral fluency, one that can be objective as it is based on quantitative data and not on the vague criteria found in many assessment rubrics (e.g., does not flow; frequent pauses, occasional pauses, natural pattern of speech).
For a test of speaking fluency, students in a Freshman English conversation class at Kookmin University were given one minute to record themselves talking about what was happening in a still image from a scene in the series Modern Family, which had been the study material for part of their course. The recordings were transcribed and their word counts were co-related with speech rate, the number of syllables articulated per minute and the mean length of runs to assess their validity as a measure of fluency.
A Retrospective of over a Decade of an Online Master’s Degree
Votteler, Nancy K.
(Sam Houston State University) Price, Debra P.
(Sam Houston State University)
Information on designing effective instruction within online learning environments based upon data from 15+ years of implementing a fully online master’s degree in reading will be discussed. During the early years, studies that examined effective online instruction were few (Allen & Seaman, 2006). However, research in effective online instruction has burgeoned since we first implemented our program. We have witnessed a surge of studies on distance learning in digital environments that focus on improved instruction and student outcomes (Bailie, 2015; Crawford-Ferre, & Wiest, 2012; Joyner, Fuller, Holzweiss, Henderson & Young, 2014; Swan, 2010). Now with thirteen years of experience in delivering online instruction, and based upon theories and paradigms of effective online instruction, we examine where we were, where we are currently, and where we project online instruction is heading due to multiple new ubiquitous mobile and social technologies. This presentation draws upon varied data sources, such as interviews with faculty, student surveys, as well as archival artifacts, such as discussion boards and student work. The data were analyzed thematically to understand how faculty and students in the program perceive the experience of online teaching and learning, and how those understandings have shaped and changed, specifically, the presenters’ teaching and learning. We hope these presentations will inspire further conversation about effective online instruction and its place in the future of global education.
Bailie, J.L. (2015). Online graduate instruction: What faculty consider reasonable in relation
to what students expect. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. 11(1), 42-53. Crawford-Ferre, H.G. & Wiest, L.R. (2012). Effective online instruction in higher education.
Quarterly Review of Distance Education. 13(1). 11-14. Joyner, S.A., Fuller, M.B., Holzweiss, P.C., Henderson, S., & Young, R. (2014). The importance of student-instructor connections in graduate level online courses. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. 10(3), 436-445. Swan, K. (2010). Teaching and learning in post-industrial education. In Cleveland-Innes, M. & Garrison’ D.R. Understanding Distance Learning in the 21st Century: Teaching and Learning in a Ne^w Era.
Using Star Wars to Teach Story Structure to English Language Major Undergraduate Students
Vincent, Joseph (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies)
This presentation is concerned with the design of a course for undergraduate students which teaches the elements of story structure using the original Star Wars film trilogy by George Lucas. Story structure was taught using the theory of the monomyth developed by Joseph Campbell and archetypes as the term was used by Campbell and Carl Jung. Additional aspects of story structure as found in novels and films were taught using materials developed by Christopher Vogler based on the work of Campbell and with specific consideration of Star Wars as an example for story structure in film. Story structure will be presented along with examples of class content, assignments, and assessment.
A Reciprocally-Connected Way of Teaching English through Supporting and Counter Examples in Movies
Iida, Yasuhiro (Osaka Medical College)
In this presentation, I first classify movie data to be used in class into two types, and then argue that to make them interact to each other is important to fully take advantage of movies as teaching material. The two types of movie data we focus on are the ones that exemplify the (grammar) rules of English, and the ones that break the rules partly or wholly.
In English classes in Japan, movies have already been playing a significant role, for allowing teachers to show their students various real-life conversations in English. For instance, in English linguistics classes, teachers can strengthen students’ understanding of a given phenomenon by providing a movie scene closely related to the topic (e.g., a specific syntactic/morphological/semantic/phonological rule). In this case, movie data function as supporting evidence for the target topic. Movies, however, also contain a wide variety of unique and uncommon linguistic phenomena that appear to break the well-known rules. We can, of course, put these examples aside by simply considering them as exceptions to the “standard” English, but it is through these rule-breaking examples that students can broaden their view and knowledge of English. Therefore, I argue that it is desirable to unify both supporting example (SptEx) and counter examples (CntEx) to fully utilize the movies in class.
Two specific examples are given blow. First, (1a) shows a rule of infixation in English (e.g., McCawley 1978, McCarthy 1982), and (1b) supports the rule. However, it has been pointed out in the literature (e.g., McMillan 1980) that several words break the rule, and (1c) is a typical counter example for (1a). Second, (2a) is a basic rule for English comparatives and superlatives, and (2b) shows that English speakers can immediately notice that beautiful- ler is not a correct form. However, as discussed in the literature (e.g., Embick & Noyer 2001, Embick 2007), there are several cases in which the rule is broken: in (2c), so-called short adjectives mature gets a more … form by being modified by an adverb. Furthermore, movies can show us several interesting examples like (3), which has two adjectives with totally opposite meanings (i.e., good and bad) attached to a single noun.
(1) a. Rule : infix to appear immediately before the word’s main stressed syllable
b. SptEx : Fan-dab-tastic. (The West Wing, Season 6, Episode 4, 2004)
c. CntEx : This is truly un-fucking-believable! (Open Water, 2003)
(2) a. Rule : ‘short’ adjectives gets ‘”-erAesf” form, but not “more/most… “ form
b. SptEx : Thank you. You look beautiful-ler. I mean, not “fuller.” You don’t look & CntEx fuller. But more… more beautiful. (Frozen, 2013)
c. CntEx : .. .vastly more emotionally mature than yourself.
(Harry Potter & the Goblet of the Fire, 2005)
(3) Tony : There are only bad options. It’s about finding the best one. CIA Director : You don’t have a better bad idea than this?
Jack : This is the best bad idea we have, sir. By far. (Argo, 2012)
Thus, I ague that, for students’ better understanding of English itself, and also for taking more advantage of movies as teaching material, it is important to provide students with not only supporting evidence but also unique examples that appear to break the rules in English. Seen in this light, even counter examples can “support” students’ understanding of English.
Embick, D. (2007). Blocking Effects and Analytic/Synthetic Alternations. Natural Language
and Linguistic Theory 25: 1-37. Embick, D. & Noyer, R. (2001). Movement Operations after Syntax. Linguistic Inquiry 32. 555-595.
McCarthy, J. J. (1982). Prosodic Structure and Expletive Infixation. Language 58: 575-590. McCawley, J. D. (1978). Where You Can Shove Infixes. In A. Bell & J. B. Hooper (Eds.),
Syllables and Segments (pp. 213-239). Amsterdam: North-Holland. McMillan, J. B. (1980). Infixing and Interposing in English. American Speech 55: 163-183.
A Service Design of Hybrid Employment Guidance Coaching on Internet
Jin, Wenquan (Jeju National University) Baek, Youngkyun (Boise State University USA) Kim, DoHyeun (Jeju National University)
Generally there is a face to face coaching at some designated time and location but now-a- days online coaching is on the rise. A coaching which helps individual to lead and maximize productivity is receiving attention and the effective coaching method is required to supplement the weakness and to maximize the strength of the online coaching using the Internet and the face-to-face coaching which means that coach and the coachee come face to face directly. For this, a hybrid coaching system needs to be developed to overcome the difficulty and the limitations of both face-to-face coaching and online coaching. In this paper, we present the hybrid employment guidance coaching service to supply both the face-to-face coaching and the online coaching on the Internet mutually. We have designed a hybrid coaching web service based on the Restful and connected with the database based over the Internet to store and manage the profiles and the coaching history of the coach and the coachee. Then coach reviews online execution result by face-to-face and counsels the situation of the coachee based on the result of the coaching. Proposed hybrid guidance coaching service improves remote accessibility between the coach and the coachee and makes the use of the strength and supplements the limitations of the traditional face-to-face coaching on the online environment by providing the interaction without any constraints on time and the space.
This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion(IITP) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No.B0126-16- 1078,Creation of PEP based on automatic protocol behavior analysis and Resource management for hyper connected for IoT Services), and this research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2014S1A5B6036891)
Teacher Candidate Perceptions of Effectiveness and Usefulness of On- and Offline Teacher Training Programs
Barker, Nan Tracz, Susan Beare, Paul Torgerson, Colleen Lam, Sarah (California State University)
The California State University (CSU) system has 23 regional campuses with 22 offering state-accredited teacher education programs. The CSU also has a statewide online teacher credential program accessible to qualified teacher candidates in all areas of the state, the CalStateTEACH (CST) program. California State University, Fresno has multiple preparation pathways for teacher candidates desiring to teach primary school aged students. The partnership, internship, and traditional pathways are offline programs and CST is fully online for the academic work. All teaching preparation pathways require field experience beginning in the first term of the program.
A system-wide exit survey for all CSU Teacher Education programs supports common data collection among all the CSU programs. Beare, Torgerson, Marshall, Tracz, and Chiero (2013) found the use of survey data sufficient to reflect impact of program improvements. Further, survey data of first year teachers’ reported levels of readiness to perform important responsibilities of teachers were not substantively related to conditions in schools considered to be challenging (Beare, Marshall, Torgerson, Tracz, & Chiero, 2012a).
Employers’ ratings of beginning teachers’ preparedness at the end their first year of teaching did not differ by teacher preparation pathway; however teacher candidates rate their preparation differently for online, intern, cohort, partnership, and traditional pathways (Beare, Torgerson, Marshall, Tracz & Chiero, 2012b; Chiero & Beare, 2010). The CST online program produced teachers who felt better prepared than teachers in other pathways (Chiero, Tracz, Marshall, Torgerson, & Beare, 2012) and candidates placed in a cohort in a partnership school rated their preparation higher than teacher candidates in more traditional programs (Beare, et al., 2012b).
The Teacher Education Exit Survey for Multiple Subject Respondents is a 31 question survey that is distributed to all teacher candidates exiting from CSU teacher training programs. Campus attended, demographic data and characteristics of student teaching placements are identified with this instrument. Program completers rate the effectiveness of preparation for teaching responsibilities very well prepared, well prepared, adequately prepared, poorly prepared, or not at all prepared. Components of the teaching preparation program are rated as very useful, useful, somewhat useful, not at all useful, and does not apply. The surveys are disseminated electronically and results are collected centrally. System-wide data and campus specific data are distributed to the Dean of Education at each campus. The results of the survey are used to make program improvements.
The marked shortage of trained and qualified teachers in California and the trend of reduced enrollment among teacher preparation programs demand critical analysis of the effectiveness and usefulness of teacher training programs within the CSU. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate program effectiveness and usefulness of online and offline teacher training programs at California State University, Fresno.
Two research questions guide this study: are there differences in perceptions of effectiveness of teacher preparation in online and offline programs at California State University, Fresno; are there differences in perceptions of the usefulness of teacher preparation in online and offline programs at California State University, Fresno?
The participants in the study will be teacher candidates prepared at California State University, Fresno in online and offline teacher training programs. The source of data will be the Teacher Education Exit Survey for Multiple Subject Respondents, Spring 2016.
Survey results of the California Teacher Education Exit Survey will be analyzed by Chi- square test of independence and ANOVA to determine if the perception of effectiveness of preparation for teaching is independent of ethnicity, gender, or online/offline pathway of teacher education and if the perception of usefulness of teacher preparation is independent of ethnicity, gender, or online/offline pathway of teacher education. Qualitative data of two open-ended questions: what element of the program contributed most to your development as a teacher; based on your recent experience as a credential candidate, what specific change(s) should be made to improve your teacher preparation program will be reviewed and analyzed. Implications for factors affecting the perceived effectiveness of online/offline pathway will be drawn and ways to improve the perceived effectiveness of each pathway will be discussed.
Beare, P. Torgersen, C., Marshall, J, Tracz, S., & Chiero, R. (2013). Surveys of teacher education graduates and their principals: The value of the data for program improvement. Teacher Education Quarterly, 40(3), 143-161.
Beare, P., Torgerson, C., Marshall, J, Tracz, S., & Chiero, R. (2012a). Toward a culture of evidence: Factors affecting survey assessment of teacher preparation. Teacher Education Quarterly, 39(1), 159-173.
Beare, P., Torgerson, C., Marshall, J, Tracz, S., & Chiero, R. (2012b). Examination of alternative programs of teacher preparation on a single campus. Teacher Education Quarterly, 39(4), 55-74.
Chiero, R., Tracz, S., Marshall, J., Torgerson, C., & Beare, P. (2012). Learning to Teach: Comparing the Effectiveness of Three Pathways. Action in Teacher Education 34, 368-380.
Chiero, R., & Beare, P. (2010). An evaluation of online versus campus-based teacher preparation programs. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching’ 6, 780-790.
Office Mix in Education Easily Creates and Shares Interactive Online Lessons
Song, Eun-Jung (Microsoft, Korea)
This session will look into the use of Office Mix in Education. Office Mix is a free extension to Microsoft Office that simply turns PowerPoint presentation into interactive online lessons. Office Mix can add audio-video narration and digital inking, screen recording, and quizzes.
This session will also cover how to publish and to share Office Mix with students and educators. Students can view the shared interactive online lessons created with Office Mix as many times they need to. The lessons can be watched sped up or slowed down, from the beginning or from any slide and can keep students focused on the slides with digital inking.
In addition, the speaker of this session will talk about the way Office Mix shows you data about who watched your mix, how much time they spent on each slide, and how they answered your quiz and poll questions. More information about Office Mix in Education can be found at: https://mix.office.com/en-us/education or https://education.microsoft.co m/GetTrained/Office-Mix-for-Teachers-Basics
Office Team. (2014, May 6). Meet Office Mix [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://blogs.office.com/2014/05/06/meet-office-mix/ PowerPoint Team. (2015, February 27). Office Mix, e-Learning and SCORM [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://blogs.office.com/2015/02/27/office-mix-e-learning-scorm/
Skype in the Classroom
Song, Eun-Jung (Microsoft, Korea)
This session will introduce how Skype used in the classroom. Skype is a tool that provides voice call, video chat, group call, instant messaging, and file sharing service. Skype in the classroom can create online new virtual classrooms connecting to other classrooms all around the world. With Skype, you can also invite guest speakers into your classroom and take a virtual field trip anywhere in the world. For these curriculum, you first need to find someone who is connected to your classroom. You can invite your acquaintances and can search a person or a classroom ready to connect with your students. This session will talk about how to organize these virtual classrooms. For more information, you can visit https://education.microsoft.com/skypeintheclassroom
OneNote Team. (2016, May 10). Connecting with teachers and students through our new “Meet the Microsofties” program [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://blogs.office.com/2016/05/10/connecting-with-teachers-and-students-through- our-new-meet-the-microsofties-program/ Guest Author. (2015, June 27). Learning adventures with the new Mystery Skype OneNote Notebook [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://blogs.office.com/2015/06/27/learning- adventures-with-the-new-mystery-skype-onenote-notebook/
Developing Reading and Writing Skills of Learners from Arabic Speaking Backgrounds
Fuqua, Jason (Sam Houston State University)
The number of native Arabic-speaking students coming to America to study English in university programs has grown over the past few years, and continues to be substantial. It has also been noticed by the English Language Institute (ELI) at Sam Houston State University (SHSU) that these students often struggle more with reading activities in class, completing them slowly, and having difficulty understanding why their work is incorrect. In addition, it seems that this group fails reading and writing to a greater extent than listening and speaking, which suggests an imbalance in the students’ language learning progress. The purpose of the study is to solve the problems associated with reading and writing in English that Arabic speaking students currently have using the ‘read and copy’ strategy. After using the ‘read and copy’ strategy for a three week period, participants felt confident that it improved reading, punctuation, and spelling.